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STATUS AS AT : 23-04-2014 08:12:57 EDT
CHAPTER XVIII
PENAL MATTERS
12 .a Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
New York, 15 November 2000
Entry into force
:
25 December 2003, in accordance with article 17which reads as follows: "1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, except that it shall not enter into force before the entry into force of the Convention. For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization. 2. For each State or regional economic integration organization ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Protocol after the deposit of the fortieth instrument of such action, this Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of the relevant instrument or on the date this Protocol enters into force pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, whichever is the later.".
Registration :
25 December 2003, No. 39574
Status :
Signatories : 117. Parties : 159
Text :
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2237, p. 319; Doc. A/55/383.
Note :
The Protocol was adopted by resolution A/RES/55/25 of 15 November 2000 at the fifty-fifth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. In accordance with its article 16, the Protocol will be open for signature by all States and by regional economic integration organizations, provided that at least one Member State of such organization has signed the Protocol, from 12 to 15 December 2000 at the Palazzi di Giustizia in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
Participant
Signature
Ratification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a), Succession(d)
Albania
12 Dec 2000
21 Aug 2002
Algeria
 6 Jun 2001
 9 Mar 2004
Antigua and Barbuda
  17 Feb 2010
Argentina
12 Dec 2000
19 Nov 2002
Armenia
15 Nov 2001
 1 Jul 2003
Australia
11 Dec 2002
14 Sep 2005
Austria
12 Dec 2000
15 Sep 2005
Azerbaijan
12 Dec 2000
30 Oct 2003
Bahamas
 9 Apr 2001
26 Sep 2008
Bahrain
   7 Jun 2004 a
Barbados
26 Sep 2001
 
Belarus
14 Dec 2000
25 Jun 2003
Belgium
12 Dec 2000
11 Aug 2004
Belize
  26 Sep 2003 a
Benin
13 Dec 2000
30 Aug 2004
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
12 Dec 2000
18 May 2006
Bosnia and Herzegovina
12 Dec 2000
24 Apr 2002
Botswana
10 Apr 2002
29 Aug 2002
Brazil
12 Dec 2000
29 Jan 2004
Bulgaria
13 Dec 2000
 5 Dec 2001
Burkina Faso
15 Dec 2000
15 May 2002
Burundi
14 Dec 2000
24 May 2012
Cabo Verde
13 Dec 2000
15 Jul 2004
Cambodia
11 Nov 2001
 2 Jul 2007
Cameroon
13 Dec 2000
 6 Feb 2006
Canada
14 Dec 2000
13 May 2002
Central African Republic
   6 Oct 2006 a
Chad
  18 Aug 2009 a
Chile
 8 Aug 2002
29 Nov 2004
China 1
   8 Feb 2010 a
Colombia
12 Dec 2000
 4 Aug 2004
Congo
14 Dec 2000
 
Costa Rica
16 Mar 2001
 9 Sep 2003
Côte d'Ivoire
  25 Oct 2012 a
Croatia
12 Dec 2000
24 Jan 2003
Cuba
  20 Jun 2013 a
Cyprus
12 Dec 2000
 6 Aug 2003
Czech Republic
10 Dec 2002
 
Democratic Republic of the Congo
  28 Oct 2005 a
Denmark 2
12 Dec 2000
30 Sep 2003
Djibouti
  20 Apr 2005 a
Dominica
  17 May 2013 a
Dominican Republic
15 Dec 2000
 5 Feb 2008
Ecuador
13 Dec 2000
17 Sep 2002
Egypt
 1 May 2002
 5 Mar 2004
El Salvador
15 Aug 2002
18 Mar 2004
Equatorial Guinea
14 Dec 2000
 7 Feb 2003
Estonia
20 Sep 2002
12 May 2004
Ethiopia
  22 Jun 2012 a
European Union
12 Dec 2000
 6 Sep 2006 AA
Finland
12 Dec 2000
 7 Sep 2006 A
France
12 Dec 2000
29 Oct 2002
Gabon
  22 Sep 2010 a
Gambia
14 Dec 2000
 5 May 2003
Georgia
13 Dec 2000
 5 Sep 2006
Germany
12 Dec 2000
14 Jun 2006
Ghana
  21 Aug 2012 a
Greece
13 Dec 2000
11 Jan 2011
Grenada
  21 May 2004 a
Guatemala
   1 Apr 2004 a
Guinea
   9 Nov 2004 a
Guinea-Bissau
14 Dec 2000
10 Sep 2007
Guyana
  14 Sep 2004 a
Haiti
13 Dec 2000
19 Apr 2011
Honduras
   1 Apr 2008 a
Hungary
14 Dec 2000
22 Dec 2006
Iceland
13 Dec 2000
22 Jun 2010
India
12 Dec 2002
 5 May 2011
Indonesia
12 Dec 2000
28 Sep 2009
Iraq
   9 Feb 2009 a
Ireland
13 Dec 2000
17 Jun 2010
Israel
14 Nov 2001
23 Jul 2008
Italy
12 Dec 2000
 2 Aug 2006
Jamaica
13 Feb 2002
29 Sep 2003
Japan
 9 Dec 2002
 
Jordan
  11 Jun 2009 a
Kazakhstan
  31 Jul 2008 a
Kenya
   5 Jan 2005 a
Kiribati
  15 Sep 2005 a
Kuwait
  12 May 2006 a
Kyrgyzstan
13 Dec 2000
 2 Oct 2003
Lao People's Democratic Republic
  26 Sep 2003 a
Latvia
10 Dec 2002
25 May 2004
Lebanon
 9 Dec 2002
 5 Oct 2005
Lesotho
14 Dec 2000
24 Sep 2003
Liberia
  22 Sep 2004 a
Libya
13 Nov 2001
24 Sep 2004
Liechtenstein
14 Mar 2001
20 Feb 2008
Lithuania
25 Apr 2002
23 Jun 2003
Luxembourg
13 Dec 2000
20 Apr 2009
Madagascar
14 Dec 2000
15 Sep 2005
Malawi
  17 Mar 2005 a
Malaysia
  26 Feb 2009 a
Mali
15 Dec 2000
12 Apr 2002
Malta
14 Dec 2000
24 Sep 2003
Mauritania
  22 Jul 2005 a
Mauritius
  24 Sep 2003 a
Mexico
13 Dec 2000
 4 Mar 2003
Micronesia (Federated States of)
   2 Nov 2011 a
Monaco
13 Dec 2000
 5 Jun 2001
Mongolia
  27 Jun 2008 a
Montenegro 3
  23 Oct 2006 d
Morocco
  25 Apr 2011 a
Mozambique
15 Dec 2000
20 Sep 2006
Myanmar
  30 Mar 2004 a
Namibia
13 Dec 2000
16 Aug 2002
Nauru
12 Nov 2001
12 Jul 2012
Netherlands 4
12 Dec 2000
27 Jul 2005 A
New Zealand 5
14 Dec 2000
19 Jul 2002
Nicaragua
  12 Oct 2004 a
Niger
21 Aug 2001
30 Sep 2004
Nigeria
13 Dec 2000
28 Jun 2001
Norway
13 Dec 2000
23 Sep 2003
Oman
  13 May 2005 a
Panama
13 Dec 2000
18 Aug 2004
Paraguay
12 Dec 2000
22 Sep 2004
Peru
14 Dec 2000
23 Jan 2002
Philippines
14 Dec 2000
28 May 2002
Poland
 4 Oct 2001
26 Sep 2003
Portugal
12 Dec 2000
10 May 2004
Qatar
  29 May 2009 a
Republic of Korea
13 Dec 2000
 
Republic of Moldova
14 Dec 2000
16 Sep 2005
Romania
14 Dec 2000
 4 Dec 2002
Russian Federation
12 Dec 2000
26 May 2004
Rwanda
14 Dec 2000
26 Sep 2003
San Marino
14 Dec 2000
20 Jul 2010
Sao Tome and Principe
  23 Aug 2006 a
Saudi Arabia
10 Dec 2002
20 Jul 2007
Senegal
13 Dec 2000
27 Oct 2003
Serbia
12 Dec 2000
 6 Sep 2001
Seychelles
22 Jul 2002
22 Jun 2004
Sierra Leone
27 Nov 2001
 
Slovakia
15 Nov 2001
21 Sep 2004
Slovenia
15 Nov 2001
21 May 2004
South Africa
14 Dec 2000
20 Feb 2004
Spain
13 Dec 2000
 1 Mar 2002
Sri Lanka
13 Dec 2000
 
St. Kitts and Nevis
  21 May 2004 a
St. Lucia
  16 Jul 2013 a
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
20 Nov 2002
29 Oct 2010
Suriname
  25 May 2007 a
Swaziland
 8 Jan 2001
24 Sep 2012
Sweden
12 Dec 2000
 1 Jul 2004
Switzerland
 2 Apr 2002
27 Oct 2006
Syrian Arab Republic
13 Dec 2000
 8 Apr 2009
Tajikistan
   8 Jul 2002 a
Thailand
18 Dec 2001
17 Oct 2013
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
12 Dec 2000
12 Jan 2005
Timor-Leste
   9 Nov 2009 a
Togo
12 Dec 2000
 8 May 2009
Trinidad and Tobago
26 Sep 2001
 6 Nov 2007
Tunisia
13 Dec 2000
14 Jul 2003
Turkey
13 Dec 2000
25 Mar 2003
Turkmenistan
  28 Mar 2005 a
Uganda
12 Dec 2000
 
Ukraine
15 Nov 2001
21 May 2004
United Arab Emirates
  21 Jan 2009 a
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
14 Dec 2000
 9 Feb 2006
United Republic of Tanzania
13 Dec 2000
24 May 2006
United States of America
13 Dec 2000
 3 Nov 2005
Uruguay
13 Dec 2000
 4 Mar 2005
Uzbekistan
28 Jun 2001
12 Aug 2008
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
14 Dec 2000
13 May 2002
Viet Nam
   8 Jun 2012 a
Zambia
  24 Apr 2005 a
Zimbabwe
  13 Dec 2013 a
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made
upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.)
Algeria

Reservations:
       The Government of the Algerian People's Democratic Republic does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 15, paragraph 2, of this Protocol, which provides that any dispute between two or more States concerning the interpretation or application of the said Protocol that cannot be settled through negotiation shall, at the request of one of those States, be submitted to arbitration or referred to the International Court of Justice.
       The Government of the Algerian People's Democratic Republic believes that any dispute of this kind can only be submitted to arbitration or referred to the International Court of Justice with the consent of all parties to the dispute.

Declarations:
       Ratification of this Protocol by the Algerian People's Democratic Republic in no way signifies recognition of Israel.
       Such ratification cannot be construed as leading to the establishment of any kind of relations with Israel.

Australia

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       "The Government of Australia hereby declares that nothing in the Protocol shall be seen to be imposing obligations on Australia to admit or retain within its borders persons in respect of whom Australia would not otherwise have an obligation to admit or retain within its borders."

Azerbaijan

Declaration:
       "The Republic of Azerbaijan declares that it is unable to guarantee the application of the provisions of the Protocol in the territories occupied by the Republic of Armenia until these territories are liberated from that occupation."

Reservation:
       "In accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 15 of the Protocol, the Republic of Azerbaijan declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of Article 15."

Bahamas

Reservation:
       “In accordance with Article 15 paragraph 3, the Commonwealth of The Bahamas enters a specific reservation to the procedure established under Article 15 paragraph 2 of the Protocol on the basis that referral of a dispute concerning the application or interpretation of the provisions of the Protocol to arbitration or to the International Court of Justice must be by consent of all the parties to the dispute.”

Bahrain

Reservation:
       “... the Kingdom of Bahrain does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of article 15 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children.”

Belgium

Upon signature:
       Declaration:
       The French, Flemish and German-speaking Communities and the Regions of Wallonia, Flanders and Brussels-Capital are also bound by this signature.

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

Declaration:
       The Republic of Bolivia declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 2 of article 15, which deals with the settlement of disputes concerning this Protocol.

China

Reservation:
       The People’s Republic of China shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of Article 15 of the Protocol.

Declaration:
       Unless otherwise notified by the Government, the Protocol shall not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

Colombia

Reservation:
       In accordance with article 15, paragraph 3, of the Protocol, Colombia declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of that article.

Cuba

Declaration:
       The Republic of Cuba declares that, in accordance with the provisions of Article 15, paragraph 3 of the Protocol, it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 2 of that Article.

Ecuador

Reservation:
       Exercising the powers referred to in article 15, paragraph 3, of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, the Government of Ecuador makes a reservation with regard to article 15, paragraph 2, relating to the settlement of disputes.

El Salvador

Upon signature:
       Reservation:
       The Government of the Republic of El Salvador does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of article 15, inasmuch as it does not recognize the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

Upon ratification:
       Reservation:
       With respect to the provisions of article 15, paragraph 3, the Government of the Republic of El Salvador declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 15, paragraph 2, inasmuch as it does not recognize the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

Ethiopia

Reservation:
       Ethiopia does not accept the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice which is provided under Article 15(2) of the said Protocol.

European Union

Declaration:
       "Article 16 (3) of the Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, provides that the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of a regional economic integration organisation shall contain a declaration specifying the matters governed by the Protocol in respect of which competence has been transferred to the organisation by its Member States which are Parties to the Protocol.
       The Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, shall apply, with regard to the competences transferred to the European Community, to the territories in which the Treaty establishing the European Community is applied and under the conditions laid down in that Treaty, in particular Article 299 thereof and the Protocols annexed to it.
       This declaration is without prejudice to the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland under the Protocol integrating the Schengen acquis into the framework of the European Union and under the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland, annexed to the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community.
       This declaration is equally without prejudice to the position of Denmark under the Protocol on the position of Denmark annexed to the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community.
       Pursuant to Article 299, this declaration is also not applicable to the territories of the Member States in which the said Treaty does not apply and is without prejudice to such acts or positions as may be adopted under the Protocol by the Member States concerned on behalf of and in the interests of those territories.  In accordance with the provision referred to above, this declaration indicates the competence that the Member States have transferred to the Community under the Treaties in matters governed by the Protocol.  The scope and the exercise of such Community competence are, by their nature, subject to continuous development as the Community further adopts relevant rules and regulations, and the Community will complete or amend this declaration, if necessary, in accordance with Article 16 (3) of the Protocol.
       The Community points out that it has competence with regard to the crossing of external borders of the Member States, regulating standards and procedures when carrying out checks on persons at such borders and rules on visas for intended stays of no more than three months.
       The Community is also competent for measures on immigration policy regarding conditions of entry and residence and measures to counter illegal immigration and illegal residence, including repatriation of illegal residents.  Moreover, it can take measures to ensure cooperation between the relevant departments of the administrations of the Member States, as well as between those departments and the Commission, in the aforementioned areas.  In these fields the Community has adopted rules and regulations and, where it has done so, it is hence solely for the Community to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent international organisations.
       In addition, Community policy in the sphere of development cooperation complements policies pursued by Member States and includes provisions to prevent and combat trafficking in persons."

Greece

Reservation:
       “The Greek State ratifies Article 13 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, ... without prejudice to Articles 9A of the Constitution, 19(3) of the Constitution, 8(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights, 436-457 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and 352B of the Criminal Code, as added by Article Second (12) of Law 3625/2007 (Government Gazette 290A), Law 2472/1997, as amended by Articles 8 of Law 2819/2000 (Government Gazette 84A), 10 of Law 3090/2002 (Government Gazette 329A) and Eighth of Law 3625/2007, Law 3471/2006 (Government Gazette 133A) and Presidential Decree 47/2005 (Government Gazette 64A).”

Indonesia

Declaration:
       "..., the Government of the Republic of Indonesia declares that the provisions of Article 5 paragraph (2) Sub-paragraph c of the Protocol will have to be implemented in strict compliance with the  principle of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of a state;"

Reservation:
       "..., the Government of the Republic of Indonesia conveys her reservation not to be bound by the provision of Article 15 (2) and takes the position that dispute[s] relating to the interpretation and application on the Protocol which have not been settled through the channel provided for in Paragraph (1) of the said Article, may be referred to the International Court of Justice only with the concern of all Parties to the dispute;"

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Reservation:
       "In accordance with paragraph 3, Article 15 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, the Lao People's Democratic Republic does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2, Article 15 of the present Protocol.  The Lao People's Democratic Republic declares that to refer a dispute relating to interpretation and application of the present Protocol to arbitration or [the] International Court of Justice, the agreement of all parties concerned in the dispute is necessary."

Lithuania

Reservation:
       "AND WHEREAS, it is provided in paragraph 3 of Article 15 of the Protocol, the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania would like to declare that the Republic of Lithuania does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of Article 15, which provides that any State Party may refer any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the said Protocol to the International Court of Justice."

Malawi

Declarations:
       "The Government of the Republic of Malawi in its efforts to curb and stamp out offences related to trafficking in persons especially women and children has embarked upon various social and legal reforms to incorporate obligations emanating from this Protocol (Article 16 (4)).
       Further, declares expressly its acceptance of Article 15 (2) on settlement of disputes concerning interpretation and application of this Protocol.
       The Competent Authority charged with the responsibility of coordinating and rendering of mutual legal assistance is:
       The Principal Secretary
       Ministry of Home Affairs and Internal Security
       Private Bag 331, Lilongwe 3. MALAWI
       Fax: 265 1 789509 Tel: 265 1 789 177
       The Official Language of communication is English."

Malaysia

Reservation
       “1. (a) Pursuant to Article 15, paragraph 3 of the Protocol, the Government of Malaysia declares that it does not consider itself bound by Article 15, paragraph 2 of the Protocol ; and
       (b) the Government of Malaysia reserves the right specifically to agree in a particular case to follow the arbitration procedure set forth in Article 15, paragraph 2 of the Protocol or any other procedure for arbitration.”

Micronesia (Federated States of)

Reservation:
       “In accordance with Article 15, paragraph 3, the Federated States of Micronesia declares that it does not consider itself bound by Article 15 paragraph 2 of the Protocol.”

Myanmar

Reservation:
       "The Government of the Union of Myanmar wishes to express reservation on Article 15 and does not consider itself bound by obligations to refer disputes relating to the interpretation or application of this Protocol to the International Court of Justice."

Qatar

Reservations:
       First - The State of Qatar has reservations on the following:
       1. Paragraph 3(d) of Article 6, which reads: “Employment, educational and training opportunities”.
       2. Paragraph 1 of Article 7, which states that: “each State Party shall consider adopting legislative or other appropriate measures that permit victims of trafficking in persons to remain in its territory, temporarily or permanently, in appropriate cases”.
       Second - The State of Qatar declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 15 which deals with the issue of settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Protocol.

Republic of Moldova

Reservation and declaration:
       In accordance with paragraph 3 of article 15 of the Protocol, the Republic of Moldova does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of article 15 of the Protocol.
       Until the full establishment of the territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova, the provisions of the Protocol will be applied only on the territory controlled by the authorities of the Republic of Moldova.

Saudi Arabia

Upon signature:
       Declaration and reservation:
       The public order of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia prohibits trafficking in persons for the purpose referred to in paragraph (a) of Article 3 of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.
       The Kingdom does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of Article 15 of the said Protocol.  It makes reservations regarding the contents of paragraph 3d of Article Six and paragraph 1 of Article 7 of the said protocol.

Reservation upon ratification:
       ... the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia does not consider itself obligated to paragraph 2 of article 15 of the Protocol.

South Africa

Reservation:
       "AND WHEREAS pending a decision by the Government of the Republic of South Africa on the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, the Government of the Republic does not consider itself bound by the terms of Article 15 (2) of the Protocol which provides for the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice in differences arising out of the interpretation or application of the Protocol.  The Republic will adhere to the position that, for the submission of a particular dispute for settlement by the International Court, the consent of all the parties to the dispute is required in every individual case."

Syrian Arab Republic

Reservations:
       The Syrian Arab Republic expresses reservations with respect to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, article 7, paragraph 1, and article 15, paragraph 2.
       Declaration:
       … The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic interprets the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, article 6, paragraph 3, subparagraph (a), as follows: “Appropriate housing” means “ensuring appropriate temporary shelter for victims of trafficking in persons until such time as they are returned to their countries”.

Thailand

Reservation:
       “[I]n accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 15 of the Protocol, the Kingdom of Thailand does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of the same Article.”

Tunisia

Reservation:
       In ratifying the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 15 November 2000, declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 15, paragraph 2, of the Protocol and affirms that disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the Protocol may be referred to the International Court of Justice only after it has given its prior consent.

United Arab Emirates

Reservation:
       … the Government of the United Arab Emirates … formally accedes thereto, with a reservation to article 15, paragraph 2, concerning arbitration. It does not therefore consider itself bound by article 15, paragraph 2.

United States of America

Reservations:
       " (1) The United States of America reserves the right not to apply in part the obligation set forth in Article 15, paragraph 1 (b), of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime with respect to the offenses established in the Trafficking Protocol.  The United States does not provide for plenary jurisdiction over offenses that are committed on board ships flying its flag or aircraft registered under its laws.  However, in a number of circumstances, U.S. law provides for jurisdiction over such offenses committed on board U.S. - flagged ships or aircraft registered under U.S. law.  Accordingly, the United States will implement paragraph 1 (b) of the Convention to the extent provided for under its federal law.
       (2) The United States of America reserves the right to assume obligations under this Protocol in a manner consistent with its fundamental principles of federalism, pursuant to which both federal and state criminal laws must be considered in relation to conduct addressed in the Protocol.  U.S. federal criminal law, which regulates conduct based on its effect on interstate or foreign commerce, or another federal interest, such as the Thirteen Amendment's prohibition of "slavery" and "involuntary servitude," serves as the principal legal regime within the United States for combating the conduct addressed in this Protocol, and is broadly effective for this purpose. Federal criminal law does not apply in the rare case where such criminal conduct does not so involve interstate or foreign commerce, or otherwise implicate another federal interest, such as the Thirteenth Amendment. There are a small number of conceivable situations involving such rare offenses of a purely local character where U.S. federal and state criminal law may not be entirely adequate to satisfy an obligation under the Protocol. The United States of America therefore reserves to the obligations set forth in the Protocol to the extent they addrs conduct which would fall within this narrow category of highly localized activity.  This reservation does not affect in any respect the ability of the United States to provide international cooperation to other Parties as contemplated in the Protocol.
       (3) In accordance with Article 15, paragraph 3, the United States of America declares that it does not consider itself bound by the obligation set forth in Article 15, paragraph 2."

Understanding:
       "The United States of America understands the obligation to establish the offenses in the Protocol as money laundering predicate offenses, in light of Article 6, paragraph 2 (b) of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, as requiring States Parties whose money laundering legislation sets forth a list of specific predicate offenses to include in such list a comprehensive range of offenses associated with trafficking in persons."

Uzbekistan

Reservation:
       “The Republic of Uzbekistan does not consider itself bound by provisions of paragraph 2 of article 15 of this Protocol.”

Viet Nam

Reservation:
       “The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of Article 15 of this Protocol.”

Zimbabwe

Reservation:
       “The Government of the Republic of Zimbabwe hereby declares that it enters a reservation to Article 15 (2) which provides that where Parties fail to resolve their dispute through arbitration any Party may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice.”

Objections
(Unless otherwise indicated, the objections were made
upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.)

Israel

With regard to the declaration made by Algeria upon ratification:
       “The Government of the State of Israel has noted that the instrument of ratification of the Algerian People’s Democratic Republic of the abovementioned Protocol which appears in the Depositary Notification Ref. C.N.225.2004.TREATIES-3 of 12 March 2004, contains a declaration with respect to the State of Israel.
       The Government of the State of Israel considers that such declaration, which is explicitly of a political nature, is incompatible with the purposes and objectives of the Protocol.
       The Government of the State of Israel therefore objects to the aforesaid declaration made by the Algerian People’s Democratic Republic.”

End Note
1.On 8 February 2010, the Secretary-General received from the Government of China the following declaration, made upon its accession to the Protocol, in respect of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region:

In accordance with the provisions of Article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Protocol shall apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, and unless otherwise notified by the Government, shall not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

2.With a territorial exclusion in respect of the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
3.See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
4.For the Kingdom in Europe. On 18 January 2007 : extension to Aruba.

Following a modification of the internal constitutional relations within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (see note 2 under “Netherlands” in Historical Information), effective 10 October 2010, the Protocol applies to the Caribbean part of the Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba).

5.With the following territorial exclusion:

"... consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory..."