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STATUS AS AT : 24-04-2014 05:03:02 EDT
CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7 . United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
New York, 9 May 1992
Entry into force
:
21 March 1994, in accordance with article 23(1).
Registration :
21 March 1994, No. 30822
Status :
Signatories : 165. Parties :. 196 1
Text :
United Nations,  Treaty Series , vol. 1771, p. 107; and depositary notifications C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993 (procès-verbal of rectification of the original texts of the Convention); C.N.436.1993.TREATIES-12 of 15 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993); C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic French text); C.N.462.1993.TREATIES-13 of 30 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993); C.N.544.1997.TREATIES-6 of 13 February 1997 (amendment to the list in annex I to the Convention); and C.N.1478.2001.TREATIES-2 of 28 December 2001 (amendment to the list in annex II to the Convention); C.N.237.2010.TREATIES-2 of 26 April 2010 (adoption of amendment to the list in the Annex I to the Convention); C.N.355.2012.TREATIES-XXVII.7 of 9 July 2012 (adoption of amendment to Annex I to the Convention) and C.N.81.2013.TREATIES-XXVII.7 of 14 January 2013 (entry into force of amendment to Annex I to the Convention).
Note :
The Convention was agreed upon and adopted by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, during its Fifth session, second part, held at New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. In accordance with its article 20, the Convention was open for signature by States Members of the United Nations or of any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations, at Rio de Janeiro during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, from 4 to 14 June 1992, and remained thereafter open at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 19 June 1993.
Participant
Signature
Approval(AA), Acceptance(A), Accession(a), Succession(d), Ratification
Afghanistan
12 Jun 1992
19 Sep 2002
Albania
   3 Oct 1994 a
Algeria
13 Jun 1992
 9 Jun 1993
Andorra
   2 Mar 2011 a
Angola
14 Jun 1992
17 May 2000
Antigua and Barbuda
 4 Jun 1992
 2 Feb 1993
Argentina
12 Jun 1992
11 Mar 1994
Armenia
13 Jun 1992
14 May 1993 A
Australia
 4 Jun 1992
30 Dec 1992
Austria
 8 Jun 1992
28 Feb 1994
Azerbaijan
12 Jun 1992
16 May 1995
Bahamas
12 Jun 1992
29 Mar 1994
Bahrain
 8 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1994
Bangladesh
 9 Jun 1992
15 Apr 1994
Barbados
12 Jun 1992
23 Mar 1994
Belarus
11 Jun 1992
11 May 2000 AA
Belgium
 4 Jun 1992
16 Jan 1996
Belize
13 Jun 1992
31 Oct 1994
Benin
13 Jun 1992
30 Jun 1994
Bhutan
11 Jun 1992
25 Aug 1995
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
10 Jun 1992
 3 Oct 1994
Bosnia and Herzegovina
   7 Sep 2000 a
Botswana
12 Jun 1992
27 Jan 1994
Brazil
 4 Jun 1992
28 Feb 1994
Brunei Darussalam
   7 Aug 2007 a
Bulgaria
 5 Jun 1992
12 May 1995
Burkina Faso
12 Jun 1992
 2 Sep 1993
Burundi
11 Jun 1992
 6 Jan 1997
Cabo Verde
12 Jun 1992
29 Mar 1995
Cambodia
  18 Dec 1995 a
Cameroon
14 Jun 1992
19 Oct 1994
Canada
12 Jun 1992
 4 Dec 1992
Central African Republic
13 Jun 1992
10 Mar 1995
Chad
12 Jun 1992
 7 Jun 1994
Chile
13 Jun 1992
22 Dec 1994
China 2, 3
11 Jun 1992
 5 Jan 1993
Colombia
13 Jun 1992
22 Mar 1995
Comoros
11 Jun 1992
31 Oct 1994
Congo
12 Jun 1992
14 Oct 1996
Cook Islands
12 Jun 1992
20 Apr 1993
Costa Rica
13 Jun 1992
26 Aug 1994
Côte d'Ivoire
10 Jun 1992
29 Nov 1994
Croatia
11 Jun 1992
 8 Apr 1996 A
Cuba
13 Jun 1992
 5 Jan 1994
Cyprus
12 Jun 1992
15 Oct 1997
Czech Republic
18 Jun 1993
 7 Oct 1993 AA
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
11 Jun 1992
 5 Dec 1994 AA
Democratic Republic of the Congo
11 Jun 1992
 9 Jan 1995
Denmark
 9 Jun 1992
21 Dec 1993
Djibouti
12 Jun 1992
27 Aug 1995
Dominica
  21 Jun 1993 a
Dominican Republic
12 Jun 1992
 7 Oct 1998
Ecuador
 9 Jun 1992
23 Feb 1993
Egypt
 9 Jun 1992
 5 Dec 1994
El Salvador
13 Jun 1992
 4 Dec 1995
Equatorial Guinea
  16 Aug 2000 a
Eritrea
  24 Apr 1995 a
Estonia
12 Jun 1992
27 Jul 1994
Ethiopia
10 Jun 1992
 5 Apr 1994
European Union
13 Jun 1992
21 Dec 1993 AA
Fiji
 9 Oct 1992
25 Feb 1993
Finland
 4 Jun 1992
 3 May 1994 A
France
13 Jun 1992
25 Mar 1994
Gabon
12 Jun 1992
21 Jan 1998
Gambia
12 Jun 1992
10 Jun 1994
Georgia
  29 Jul 1994 a
Germany
12 Jun 1992
 9 Dec 1993
Ghana
12 Jun 1992
 6 Sep 1995
Greece
12 Jun 1992
 4 Aug 1994
Grenada
 3 Dec 1992
11 Aug 1994
Guatemala
13 Jun 1992
15 Dec 1995
Guinea
12 Jun 1992
 7 May 1993
Guinea-Bissau
12 Jun 1992
27 Oct 1995
Guyana
13 Jun 1992
29 Aug 1994
Haiti
13 Jun 1992
25 Sep 1996
Honduras
13 Jun 1992
19 Oct 1995
Hungary
13 Jun 1992
24 Feb 1994
Iceland
 4 Jun 1992
16 Jun 1993
India
10 Jun 1992
 1 Nov 1993
Indonesia
 5 Jun 1992
23 Aug 1994
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
14 Jun 1992
18 Jul 1996
Iraq
  28 Jul 2009 a
Ireland
13 Jun 1992
20 Apr 1994
Israel
 4 Jun 1992
 4 Jun 1996
Italy
 5 Jun 1992
15 Apr 1994
Jamaica
12 Jun 1992
 6 Jan 1995
Japan
13 Jun 1992
28 May 1993 A
Jordan
11 Jun 1992
12 Nov 1993
Kazakhstan
 8 Jun 1992
17 May 1995
Kenya
12 Jun 1992
30 Aug 1994
Kiribati
13 Jun 1992
 7 Feb 1995
Kuwait
  28 Dec 1994 a
Kyrgyzstan
  25 May 2000 a
Lao People's Democratic Republic
   4 Jan 1995 a
Latvia
11 Jun 1992
23 Mar 1995
Lebanon
12 Jun 1992
15 Dec 1994
Lesotho
11 Jun 1992
 7 Feb 1995
Liberia
12 Jun 1992
 5 Nov 2002
Libya
29 Jun 1992
14 Jun 1999
Liechtenstein
 4 Jun 1992
22 Jun 1994
Lithuania
11 Jun 1992
24 Mar 1995
Luxembourg
 9 Jun 1992
 9 May 1994
Madagascar
10 Jun 1992
 2 Jun 1999
Malawi
10 Jun 1992
21 Apr 1994
Malaysia
 9 Jun 1993
13 Jul 1994
Maldives
12 Jun 1992
 9 Nov 1992
Mali
30 Sep 1992
28 Dec 1994
Malta
12 Jun 1992
17 Mar 1994
Marshall Islands
12 Jun 1992
 8 Oct 1992
Mauritania
12 Jun 1992
20 Jan 1994
Mauritius
10 Jun 1992
 4 Sep 1992
Mexico
13 Jun 1992
11 Mar 1993
Micronesia (Federated States of)
12 Jun 1992
18 Nov 1993
Monaco
11 Jun 1992
20 Nov 1992
Mongolia
12 Jun 1992
30 Sep 1993
Montenegro 4
  23 Oct 2006 d
Morocco
13 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1995
Mozambique
12 Jun 1992
25 Aug 1995
Myanmar
11 Jun 1992
25 Nov 1994
Namibia
12 Jun 1992
16 May 1995
Nauru
 8 Jun 1992
11 Nov 1993
Nepal
12 Jun 1992
 2 May 1994
Netherlands 5
 4 Jun 1992
20 Dec 1993 A
New Zealand
 4 Jun 1992
16 Sep 1993
Nicaragua
13 Jun 1992
31 Oct 1995
Niger
11 Jun 1992
25 Jul 1995
Nigeria
13 Jun 1992
29 Aug 1994
Niue
  28 Feb 1996 a
Norway
 4 Jun 1992
 9 Jul 1993
Oman
11 Jun 1992
 8 Feb 1995
Pakistan
13 Jun 1992
 1 Jun 1994
Palau
  10 Dec 1999 a
Panama
18 Mar 1993
23 May 1995
Papua New Guinea
13 Jun 1992
16 Mar 1993
Paraguay
12 Jun 1992
24 Feb 1994
Peru
12 Jun 1992
 7 Jun 1993
Philippines
12 Jun 1992
 2 Aug 1994
Poland
 5 Jun 1992
28 Jul 1994
Portugal 3
13 Jun 1992
21 Dec 1993
Qatar
  18 Apr 1996 a
Republic of Korea
13 Jun 1992
14 Dec 1993
Republic of Moldova
12 Jun 1992
 9 Jun 1995
Romania
 5 Jun 1992
 8 Jun 1994
Russian Federation
13 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1994
Rwanda
10 Jun 1992
18 Aug 1998
Samoa
12 Jun 1992
29 Nov 1994
San Marino
10 Jun 1992
28 Oct 1994
Sao Tome and Principe
12 Jun 1992
29 Sep 1999
Saudi Arabia
  28 Dec 1994 a
Senegal
13 Jun 1992
17 Oct 1994
Serbia
  12 Mar 2001 a
Seychelles
10 Jun 1992
22 Sep 1992
Sierra Leone
11 Feb 1993
22 Jun 1995
Singapore
13 Jun 1992
29 May 1997
Slovakia
19 May 1993
25 Aug 1994 AA
Slovenia
13 Jun 1992
 1 Dec 1995
Solomon Islands
13 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1994
Somalia
  11 Sep 2009 a
South Africa
15 Jun 1993
29 Aug 1997
South Sudan
  17 Feb 2014 a
Spain
13 Jun 1992
21 Dec 1993
Sri Lanka
10 Jun 1992
23 Nov 1993
St. Kitts and Nevis
12 Jun 1992
 7 Jan 1993
St. Lucia
14 Jun 1993
14 Jun 1993
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
   2 Dec 1996 a
Sudan
 9 Jun 1992
19 Nov 1993
Suriname
13 Jun 1992
14 Oct 1997
Swaziland
12 Jun 1992
 7 Oct 1996
Sweden
 8 Jun 1992
23 Jun 1993
Switzerland
12 Jun 1992
10 Dec 1993
Syrian Arab Republic
   4 Jan 1996 a
Tajikistan
   7 Jan 1998 a
Thailand
12 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1994
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  28 Jan 1998 a
Timor-Leste
  10 Oct 2006 a
Togo
12 Jun 1992
 8 Mar 1995 A
Tonga
  20 Jul 1998 a
Trinidad and Tobago
11 Jun 1992
24 Jun 1994
Tunisia
13 Jun 1992
15 Jul 1993
Turkey
  24 Feb 2004 a
Turkmenistan
   5 Jun 1995 a
Tuvalu
 8 Jun 1992
26 Oct 1993
Uganda
13 Jun 1992
 8 Sep 1993
Ukraine
11 Jun 1992
13 May 1997
United Arab Emirates
  29 Dec 1995 a
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 6, 7
12 Jun 1992
 8 Dec 1993
United Republic of Tanzania
12 Jun 1992
17 Apr 1996
United States of America
12 Jun 1992
15 Oct 1992
Uruguay
 4 Jun 1992
18 Aug 1994
Uzbekistan
  20 Jun 1993 a
Vanuatu
 9 Jun 1992
25 Mar 1993
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
12 Jun 1992
28 Dec 1994
Viet Nam
11 Jun 1992
16 Nov 1994
Yemen
12 Jun 1992
21 Feb 1996
Zambia
11 Jun 1992
28 May 1993
Zimbabwe
12 Jun 1992
 3 Nov 1992
Declarations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, accession, acceptance, approval or succession.)
Bulgaria

Declaration:
       "The Republic of Bulgaria declares that in accordance with article 4, paragraph 6, and with respect to paragraph 2 ( b ) of the said article, it accepts as a basis of the anthropogenic emissions in Bulgaria of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, the 1988 levels of the said emissions in the country and not their 1990 levels, keeping records of and comparing the emission rates during the subsequent years."

Croatia

Declaration :
       "The Republic of Croatia declares that it intends to be bound by the provisions of the Annex 1, as a country undergoing the process of transition to a market economy."

Cuba

Declaration:
       With reference to article 14 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Government of the Republic of Cuba declares that, insofar as concerns the Republic of Cuba, any dispute that may arise between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention shall be settled through negotiation through the diplomatic channel.

European Union

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The European Economic Community and its Member States declare, for the purposes of clarity, that the inclusion of the European Community as well as its Member States in the lists in the Annexes to the Convention is without prejudice to the division of competence and responsibilities between the Community and its Member States, which is to be declared in accordance with article 21 (3) of the Convention."

Upon approval:

Declaration:
       "The European Economic Community and its Member States declare that the commitment to limit anthropogenic CO 2 emissions set out in article 4(2) of the Convention will be fulfilled in the Community as a whole through action by the Community and its Member States, within the respective com- petence of each.
       In this perspective, the Community and its Member States reaffirm the objectives set out in the Council conclusions of 29 October 1990, and in particular the objective of stabilization of CO 2 emission by 2000 and 1990 level in the Community as a whole.
       The European Economic Community and its Member States are elaborating a coherent strategy in order to attain this objective."

Fiji

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The Government of Fiji declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall, in no way, constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

Hungary

Declaration:
       "The Government of the Republic of Hungary attributes great significance to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and it reiterates its position in accordance with the provisions of article 4.6 of the Convention on certain degree of flexibility that the average level of anthropogenic carbon-dioxide emissions for the period of 1985-1987 will be considered as reference level in context of the commitments under article 4.2 of the Convention. This understanding is closely related to the `process of transition' as it is given in article 4.6 of the Convention. The Government of the Republic of Hungary declares that it will do all efforts to contribute to the objective of the Convention."

Kiribati

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that signature and /or ratification of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

Monaco

Declaration:
       In accordance with sub-paragraph g of article 4.2 of the Convention, the Principality of Monaco declares that it intends to be bound by the provisions of sub-paragraphs a and b of said article.

Nauru

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The Government of Nauru declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."

Netherlands

17 February 2010


Declaration:
       “The Kingdom of the Netherlands declares, in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 14 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, that it accepts both means of dispute settlement referred to in that paragraph as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting one or both means of dispute settlement.”

Papua New Guinea

Declaration:
       "The Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea declares its understanding that ratification of the Con- vention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under International Law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of Climate Change as derogating from the prin- ciples of general International Law."

Solomon Islands

Declaration:
       "In pursuance of article 14 (2) of the said Convention [the Government of the Solomon Islands] shall recognise as com-pulsory, arbitration, in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration."

Tuvalu

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The Government of Tuvalu declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."
       

Notifications made under article 4 (2) (g) 8
Participant
Date of receipt of the notification:
Czech Republic
27 Nov 1995
Kazakhstan
23 Mar 2000
Monaco
20 Nov 1992
Slovakia
23 Feb 1996
Slovenia
9 Jun 1998
End Note
1.For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol] , any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.
2.By a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following:

"In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People's Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.  The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise."

3.On 28 June 1999, the Government of Portugal informed the Secretary-General the the Convention would also apply to Macao.

Subsequently, the Secretary-General received communications concerning the status of Macao from Portugal and China (see note 1 under “Portugal” and note 3 under “China” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.) Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Macao, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention will also apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region.

4.See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
5.For the Kingdom in Europe.
6.In respect of  Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man. On 4 April 2006: in respect of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas).
7.By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following:

The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 9 May 1992 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007.

The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

8.States having, in accordance with article 4 (2)(g), notified the Secretary-General of their intention to be bound by article 4 (2)(a) and (b) of the Convention.