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STATUS AS AT : 23-04-2014 05:01:22 EDT
CHAPTER IV
HUMAN RIGHTS
8 . Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
New York, 18 December 1979 1
Entry into force
:
3 September 1981, in accordance with article 27(1).
Registration :
3 September 1981, No. 20378
Status :
Signatories : 99. Parties : 188
Text :
United Nations,  Treaty Series , vol. 1249, p. 13.
Note :
The Convention was opened for signature at the United Nations Headquarters on 1 March 1980.
Participant
Signature
Ratification, Accession(a), Succession(d)
Afghanistan
14 Aug 1980
 5 Mar 2003
Albania
  11 May 1994 a
Algeria 2
  22 May 1996 a
Andorra
  15 Jan 1997 a
Angola
  17 Sep 1986 a
Antigua and Barbuda
   1 Aug 1989 a
Argentina
17 Jul 1980
15 Jul 1985
Armenia
  13 Sep 1993 a
Australia 3
17 Jul 1980
28 Jul 1983
Austria 4
17 Jul 1980
31 Mar 1982
Azerbaijan
  10 Jul 1995 a
Bahamas
   6 Oct 1993 a
Bahrain
  18 Jun 2002 a
Bangladesh 5
   6 Nov 1984 a
Barbados
24 Jul 1980
16 Oct 1980
Belarus
17 Jul 1980
 4 Feb 1981
Belgium 6
17 Jul 1980
10 Jul 1985
Belize
 7 Mar 1990
16 May 1990
Benin
11 Nov 1981
12 Mar 1992
Bhutan
17 Jul 1980
31 Aug 1981
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
30 May 1980
 8 Jun 1990
Bosnia and Herzegovina 7
   1 Sep 1993 d
Botswana
  13 Aug 1996 a
Brazil 8
31 Mar 1981
 1 Feb 1984
Brunei Darussalam
  24 May 2006 a
Bulgaria 9
17 Jul 1980
 8 Feb 1982
Burkina Faso
  14 Oct 1987 a
Burundi
17 Jul 1980
 8 Jan 1992
Cabo Verde
   5 Dec 1980 a
Cambodia 10, 11
17 Oct 1980
15 Oct 1992 a
Cameroon
 6 Jun 1983
23 Aug 1994
Canada 12
17 Jul 1980
10 Dec 1981
Central African Republic
  21 Jun 1991 a
Chad
   9 Jun 1995 a
Chile
17 Jul 1980
 7 Dec 1989
China 13, 14
17 Jul 1980
 4 Nov 1980
Colombia
17 Jul 1980
19 Jan 1982
Comoros
  31 Oct 1994 a
Congo
29 Jul 1980
26 Jul 1982
Cook Islands 15
  11 Aug 2006 a
Costa Rica
17 Jul 1980
 4 Apr 1986
Côte d'Ivoire
17 Jul 1980
18 Dec 1995
Croatia 7
   9 Sep 1992 d
Cuba
 6 Mar 1980
17 Jul 1980
Cyprus 16
  23 Jul 1985 a
Czech Republic 17
  22 Feb 1993 d
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 18
  27 Feb 2001 a
Democratic Republic of the Congo
17 Jul 1980
17 Oct 1986
Denmark 19
17 Jul 1980
21 Apr 1983
Djibouti
   2 Dec 1998 a
Dominica
15 Sep 1980
15 Sep 1980
Dominican Republic
17 Jul 1980
 2 Sep 1982
Ecuador
17 Jul 1980
 9 Nov 1981
Egypt 20
16 Jul 1980
18 Sep 1981
El Salvador
14 Nov 1980
19 Aug 1981
Equatorial Guinea
  23 Oct 1984 a
Eritrea
   5 Sep 1995 a
Estonia
  21 Oct 1991 a
Ethiopia
 8 Jul 1980
10 Sep 1981
Fiji 21
  28 Aug 1995 a
Finland
17 Jul 1980
 4 Sep 1986
France 22
17 Jul 1980
14 Dec 1983
Gabon
17 Jul 1980
21 Jan 1983
Gambia
29 Jul 1980
16 Apr 1993
Georgia
  26 Oct 1994 a
Germany 23, 24, 25
17 Jul 1980
10 Jul 1985
Ghana
17 Jul 1980
 2 Jan 1986
Greece
 2 Mar 1982
 7 Jun 1983
Grenada
17 Jul 1980
30 Aug 1990
Guatemala
 8 Jun 1981
12 Aug 1982
Guinea 26
17 Jul 1980
 9 Aug 1982
Guinea-Bissau
17 Jul 1980
23 Aug 1985
Guyana
17 Jul 1980
17 Jul 1980
Haiti
17 Jul 1980
20 Jul 1981
Honduras
11 Jun 1980
 3 Mar 1983
Hungary 27
 6 Jun 1980
22 Dec 1980
Iceland
24 Jul 1980
18 Jun 1985
India
30 Jul 1980
 9 Jul 1993
Indonesia
29 Jul 1980
13 Sep 1984
Iraq
  13 Aug 1986 a
Ireland 28
  23 Dec 1985 a
Israel 29
17 Jul 1980
 3 Oct 1991
Italy
17 Jul 1980
10 Jun 1985
Jamaica 30
17 Jul 1980
19 Oct 1984
Japan
17 Jul 1980
25 Jun 1985
Jordan
 3 Dec 1980
 1 Jul 1992
Kazakhstan
  26 Aug 1998 a
Kenya
   9 Mar 1984 a
Kiribati
  17 Mar 2004 a
Kuwait 31
   2 Sep 1994 a
Kyrgyzstan
  10 Feb 1997 a
Lao People's Democratic Republic
17 Jul 1980
14 Aug 1981
Latvia
  14 Apr 1992 a
Lebanon
  16 Apr 1997 a
Lesotho 32
17 Jul 1980
22 Aug 1995
Liberia
  17 Jul 1984 a
Libya 33
  16 May 1989 a
Liechtenstein 34
  22 Dec 1995 a
Lithuania
  18 Jan 1994 a
Luxembourg
17 Jul 1980
 2 Feb 1989
Madagascar
17 Jul 1980
17 Mar 1989
Malawi 35
  12 Mar 1987 a
Malaysia 36
   5 Jul 1995 a
Maldives 37, 38
   1 Jul 1993 a
Mali
 5 Feb 1985
10 Sep 1985
Malta
   8 Mar 1991 a
Marshall Islands
   2 Mar 2006 a
Mauritania 39
  10 May 2001 a
Mauritius 40
   9 Jul 1984 a
Mexico
17 Jul 1980
23 Mar 1981
Micronesia (Federated States of)
   1 Sep 2004 a
Monaco
  18 Mar 2005 a
Mongolia 41
17 Jul 1980
20 Jul 1981
Montenegro 42
  23 Oct 2006 d
Morocco
  21 Jun 1993 a
Mozambique
  21 Apr 1997 a
Myanmar
  22 Jul 1997 a
Namibia
  23 Nov 1992 a
Nauru
  23 Jun 2011 a
Nepal
 5 Feb 1991
22 Apr 1991
Netherlands 43
17 Jul 1980
23 Jul 1991
New Zealand 44, 45, 46, 47, 48
17 Jul 1980
10 Jan 1985
Nicaragua
17 Jul 1980
27 Oct 1981
Niger 49
   8 Oct 1999 a
Nigeria
23 Apr 1984
13 Jun 1985
Norway
17 Jul 1980
21 May 1981
Oman
   7 Feb 2006 a
Pakistan
  12 Mar 1996 a
Palau
20 Sep 2011
 
Panama
26 Jun 1980
29 Oct 1981
Papua New Guinea
  12 Jan 1995 a
Paraguay
   6 Apr 1987 a
Peru
23 Jul 1981
13 Sep 1982
Philippines
15 Jul 1980
 5 Aug 1981
Poland 50
29 May 1980
30 Jul 1980
Portugal 13, 51
24 Apr 1980
30 Jul 1980
Qatar
  29 Apr 2009 a
Republic of Korea 52
25 May 1983
27 Dec 1984
Republic of Moldova
   1 Jul 1994 a
Romania 53
 4 Sep 1980
 7 Jan 1982
Russian Federation 54
17 Jul 1980
23 Jan 1981
Rwanda
 1 May 1980
 2 Mar 1981
Samoa
  25 Sep 1992 a
San Marino
26 Sep 2003
10 Dec 2003
Sao Tome and Principe
31 Oct 1995
 3 Jun 2003
Saudi Arabia
 7 Sep 2000
 7 Sep 2000
Senegal
29 Jul 1980
 5 Feb 1985
Serbia 7
  12 Mar 2001 d
Seychelles
   5 May 1992 a
Sierra Leone
21 Sep 1988
11 Nov 1988
Singapore 55
   5 Oct 1995 a
Slovakia 17
  28 May 1993 d
Slovenia 7
   6 Jul 1992 d
Solomon Islands
   6 May 2002 a
South Africa
29 Jan 1993
15 Dec 1995
Spain
17 Jul 1980
 5 Jan 1984
Sri Lanka
17 Jul 1980
 5 Oct 1981
St. Kitts and Nevis
  25 Apr 1985 a
St. Lucia
   8 Oct 1982 a
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
   4 Aug 1981 a
State of Palestine
   2 Apr 2014 a
Suriname
   1 Mar 1993 a
Swaziland
  26 Mar 2004 a
Sweden 56, 57
 7 Mar 1980
 2 Jul 1980
Switzerland 58
23 Jan 1987
27 Mar 1997
Syrian Arab Republic
  28 Mar 2003 a
Tajikistan
  26 Oct 1993 a
Thailand 59
   9 Aug 1985 a
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 7
  18 Jan 1994 d
Timor-Leste
  16 Apr 2003 a
Togo
  26 Sep 1983 a
Trinidad and Tobago
27 Jun 1985
12 Jan 1990
Tunisia
24 Jul 1980
20 Sep 1985
Turkey
  20 Dec 1985 a
Turkmenistan
   1 May 1997 a
Tuvalu
   6 Oct 1999 a
Uganda
30 Jul 1980
22 Jul 1985
Ukraine
17 Jul 1980
12 Mar 1981
United Arab Emirates 60
   6 Oct 2004 a
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 14, 61, 62, 63
22 Jul 1981
 7 Apr 1986
United Republic of Tanzania
17 Jul 1980
20 Aug 1985
United States of America
17 Jul 1980
 
Uruguay
30 Mar 1981
 9 Oct 1981
Uzbekistan
  19 Jul 1995 a
Vanuatu
   8 Sep 1995 a
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
17 Jul 1980
 2 May 1983
Viet Nam
29 Jul 1980
17 Feb 1982
Yemen 64
  30 May 1984 a
Zambia
17 Jul 1980
21 Jun 1985
Zimbabwe
  13 May 1991 a
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made
upon ratification, accession or succession.)
Algeria 65

Reservations:
       Article 2:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that it is prepared to apply the provisions of this article on condition that they do not conflict with the provisions of the Algerian Family Code.
       ...
       Article 15, paragraph 4:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that the provisions of article 15, paragraph 4, concerning the right of women to choose their residence and domicile should not be interpreted in such a manner as to contradict the provisions of chapter 4 (art. 37) of the Algerian Family Code.
       Article 16:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that the provisions of article 16 concerning equal rights for men and women in all matters relating to marriage, both during marriage and at its dissolution, should not contradict the provisions of the Algerian Family Code.
       Article 29:
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, which states that any dispute between two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration or to the International Court of Justice.
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria holds that no such dispute can be submitted to arbitration or to the Court of International Justice except with the consent of all the parties to the dispute.

Argentina

Reservation:
       The Government of Argentina declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

Australia 3

Reservations:
       "The Government of Australia states that maternity leave with pay is provided in respect of most women employed by the Commonwealth Government and the Governments of New South Wales and Victoria. Unpaid maternity leave is provided in respect of all other women employed in the State of New South Wales and elsewhere to women employed under Federal and some State industrial awards.  Social Security benefits subject to income tests are available to women who are sole parents.
       "The Government of Australia advises that it is not at present in a position to take the measures required by article 11 (2) to introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits throughout Australia.
       .....

Declaration:
       "Australia has a Federal Constitutional System in which Legislative, Executive and Judicial Powers are shared or distributed between the Commonwealth and the Constituent States. The implementation of the Treaty throughout Australia will be effected by the Commonwealth State and Territory Authorities having regard to their respective constitutional powers and arrangements concerning their exercise."

30  August 2000


Reservation:
       The Government of Australia advises that it does not accept the application of the Convention in so far as it would require alteration of Defence Force policy which excludes women from combat duties.”

Austria 4

Reservation:
       “Austria reserves its right to apply the provision of Article 11, as far as special protection of working women is concerned within the limits established by national legislation."
       

Bahamas 66

Reservations:
       “The Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 2 (a) of the Convention.
       The Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention.
       The Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention.”

Bahrain

Reservations:
       ... the Kingdom of Bahrain makes reservations with respect to the following provisions of the Convention:
       - Article 2, in order to ensure its implementation within the bounds of the provisions of the Islamic Shariah;
       - Article 9, paragraph 2;
       - Article 15, paragraph 4;
       - Article 16, in so far as it is incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah;
       - Article 29, paragraph 1.

Bangladesh 5
       "The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh does not consider as binding upon itself the provisions of article 2, [... and ...] 16 (1) (c) as they conflict with  Sharia law based on Holy Quran and Sunna."

Belarus 54

Belgium 6

Brazil 8

Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       "... Brazil does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the above-mentioned Convention."

Brunei Darussalam

Reservations:
       "The Government of Brunei Darussalam expresses its reservations regarding those provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam and, without prejudice to the generality of the said reservations, expresses its reservations regarding paragraph 2 of Article 9 and paragraph 1 of Article 29 of the Convention."

Bulgaria 9

Canada 12

Chile

Upon signature:
       Declaration:
       The Government of Chile has signed this Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, mindful of the important step which this document represents, not only in terms of the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but also in terms of their full and permanent integration into society in conditions of equality.
       The Government is obliged to state, however, that some of the provisions of the Convention are not entirely compatible with current Chilean legislation.
       At the same time, it reports the establishment of a Commission for the Study and Reform of the Civil Code, which now has before it various proposals to amend,  inter alia , those provisions which are not fully consistent with the terms of the Convention.

China

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       The People's Republic of China does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention.

Cook Islands 15

Cuba

Reservation:
       The Government of the Republic of Cuba makes a specific reservation concerning the provisions of article 29 of the Convention inasmuch as it holds that any disputes that may arise between States Parties should be resolved through direct negotiations through the diplomatic channel.

Cyprus 16

Czech Republic 17

Democratic People's Republic of Korea 18

Reservations:
       “The Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph (f) of article 2, paragraph 2 of article 9 and paragraph 1 of article 29 of [the Convention].”

Egypt 20

Reservations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       [.....]
       In respect of article 16
       Reservation to the text of article 16 concerning the equality of men and women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations during the marriage and upon its dissolution, without prejudice to the Islamic  Sharia's  provisions whereby women are accorded rights equivalent to those of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. This is out of respect for the sacrosanct nature of the firm religious beliefs which govern marital relations in Egypt and which may not be called in question and in view of the fact that one of the most important bases of these relations is an equivalency of rights and duties so as to ensure complementary which guarantees true equality between the spouses. The provisions of the  Sharia lay down that the husband shall pay bridal money to the wife and maintain her fully and shall also make a payment to her upon divorce, whereas the wife retains full rights over her property and is not obliged to spend anything on her keep. The  Sharia therefore restricts the wife's rights to divorce by making it contingent on a judge's ruling, whereas no such restriction is laid down in the case of the husband.
       In respect of article 29
       The Egyptian delegation also maintains the reservation contained in article 29, paragraph 2, concerning the right of a State signatory to the Convention to declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article concerning the submission to an arbitral body of any dispute which may arise between States concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention. This is in order to avoid being bound by the system ofarbitration in this field.

Reservation made upon ratification:
       General reservation on article 2
       The Arab Republic of Egypt is willing to comply with the content of this article, provided that such compliance does not run counter to the Islamic Sharia.

El Salvador

Upon signature:
       Upon ratification of the Convention, the Government of El Salvador will make the reservation provided for in article 29.

Upon ratification:
       Reservation:
       With reservation as to the application of the provision of article 29, paragraph 1.

Ethiopia

Reservation:
       Socialist Ethiopia does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention.

Fiji 21

France 22
       Upon signature:
       Declaration:
       The Government of the French Republic declares that article 9 of the Convention must not be interpreted as precluding the application of the second paragraph of article 96 of the code of French nationality.
       
[All other declarations and reservations were confirmed in substance upon ratification.]

       Upon ratification:
       Declarations:
       The Government of the French Republic declares that the preamble to the Convention in particular the eleventh preambular paragraph contains debatable elements which are definitely out of place in this text.
       The Government of the French Republic declares that the term "family education" in article 5 (b) of the Convention must be interpreted as meaning public education concerning the family and that, in any event, article 5 will be applied subject to respect for article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
       The Government of the French Republic declares that no provision of the Convention must be interpreted as prevailing over provisions of French legislation which are more favourable to women than to men.
       Reservation:
       ...
       Article 29
       The Government of the French Republic declares, in pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2, of the Convention, that it will not be bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1.
Germany 23, 24

Declaration:
       The right of peoples to self-determination, as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and in the International Covenants of 19 December 1966, applies to all peoples and not only to those living 'under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation'. All peoples thus have the inalienable right freely to determine their political status and freely to pursue their economic, social and cultural development. The Federal Republic of Germany would be unable to recognize as legally valid an interpretation of the right to self-determination which contradicts the unequivocal wording of the Charter of the United Nations and of the two International Covenants of 19 December 1966 on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It will interpret the 11th paragraph of the Preamble accordingly.

Hungary 27

India

Declarations and reservations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       Declarations:
       "i) With regard to articles 5 (a) and 16 (1) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that it shall abide by and ensure these provisions in conformity with its policy of non-interference in the personal affairs of any Community without its initiative and consent.
       "ii) With regard to article 16 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that though in principle it fully supports the principle of compulsory registration of marriages, it is not practical in a vast country like India with its variety of customs, religions and level of literacy."
       Reservation:
       "With regard to article 29 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Government of the Republic of India declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article."

Indonesia
       "The Government of the Republic of Indonesia does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1 of this Convention and takes the position that any dispute relating to the interpretation or application of the Convention may only be submitted to arbitration or to the International Court of Justice with the agreement of all the parties to the dispute."

Iraq 67

Reservations:
       1. Approval of and accession to this Convention shall not mean that the Republic of Iraq is bound by the provisions of article 2, paragraphs (f) and (g), nor of article 16 of the Convention. The reservation to this last-mentioned article shall be without prejudice to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah according women rights equivalent to the rights of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. Iraq also enters a reservation to article 29, paragraph 1, of this Convention with regard to the principle of international arbitration in connection with the interpretation or application of this Convention.
       2. This approval in no way implies recognition of or entry into any relations with Israel.

Ireland 28

Reservations:
       ....

Articles 16, 1 (d) and (f)
       Ireland is of the view that the attainment in Ireland of the objectives of the Convention does not necessitate the extension to men of rights identical to those accorded by law to women in respect of the guardianship, adoption and custody of children born out of wedlock and reserves the right to implement the Convention subject to that understanding.

Articles 11 (1) and 13 (a)
       Ireland reserves the right to regard the Anti-Discrimination (Pay) Act, 1974 and the Employment Equality Act 1977 and other measures taken in implementation of the European Economic Community standards concerning employment opportunities and pay as sufficient implementation of articles 11,1 (b), (c) and (d).
       Ireland reserves the right for the time being to maintain provisions of Irish legislation in the area of social security which are more favourable to women than men.

Israel

Reservations:
       "1. The State of Israel hereby expresses its reservation with regard to article 7 (b) of the Convention concerning the appointment of women to serve as judges of religious courts where this is prohibited by the laws of any of the religious communities in Israel. Otherwise, the said article is fully implemented in Israel, in view of the fact that women take a prominent part in all aspect of public life.
       "2. The State of Israel hereby expresses its reservation with regard to article 16 of the Convention, to the extent that the laws on personal status which are binding on the various religious communities in Israel do not conform with the provisions of that article."

Declaration:
       "3. In accordance with paragraph 2 of article 29 of the Convention, the State of Israel hereby declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article."

Italy

Upon signature:
       Reservation:
       Italy reserves the right to exercise, when depositing the instrument of ratification, the option provided for in article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 23 May 1969.

Jamaica 30
       The Government of Jamaica declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention."

Jordan 68

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       Jordan does not consider itself bound by the following provisions:
       1. Article 9, paragraph 2;
       2. ...
       3. Article 16, paragraph (1) (c), relating to the rights arising upon the dissolution of marriage with regard to maintenance and compensation;
       4. Article 16, paragraph (1) (d) and (g).

Kuwait 31, 69

Reservations:
       ...

2. Article 9, paragraph 2
       The Government of Kuwait reserves its right not to implement the provision contained in article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention, inasmuch as it runs counter to the Kuwaiti Nationality Act, which stipulates that a child's nationality shall be determined by that of his father.

3. Article 16 (f)
       The Government of the State of Kuwait declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provision contained in article 16 (f) inasmuch as it conflicts with the provisions of the  Islamic  Shariah , Islam being the official religion of the State.
       4. The Government of Kuwait declares that it is not bound by the provision contained in article 29, paragraph 1.

Lebanon 19

Reservations:
       The Government of the Lebanese Republic enters reservations regarding article 9 (2), and article 16 (1) (c) (d) (f) and (g) (regarding the right to choose a family name).
       In accordance with paragraph 2 of article 29, the Government of the Lebanese Republic declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of that article.

Lesotho 31, 32

Reservation:
       "The Government of the Kingdom of Lesotho declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 2 to the extent that it conflicts with Lesotho's constitutional stipulations relative to succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Lesotho and law relating to succession to chieftainship.”

Libya 33

Reservation:
       1. Article 2 of the Convention shall be implemented with due regard for the peremptory norms of the Islamic  Shariah relating to determination of the inheritance portions of the estate of a deceased person, whether female or male.
       2. The implementation of paragraph 16 (c) and (d) of the Convention shall be without prejudice to any of the rights guaranteed to women by the Islamic  Shariah .

Liechtenstein 34

Reservation concerning article 1:
       "In the light of the definition given in article 1 of the Convention, the Principality of Liechtenstein reserves the right to apply, with respect to all the obligations of the Convention, article 3 of the Liechtenstein Constitution."

Luxembourg 70

Malawi 35

Malaysia 31, 36, 56, 71
       Reservations: ... The Government of Malaysia declares that Malaysia’s accession is subject to the understanding that the provisions of the Convention do not conflict with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia’ law and the Federal Constitution of Malaysia.  With regard thereto, further, the Government of Malaysia does not consider itself bound by the provisions of articles 9 (2), 16 (1) (a), 16 (1) (c), 16 (1) (f) and 16 (1) (g) of the aforesaid Convention.
       Declaration :In relation to article 11 of the Convention, Malaysia interprets the provisions of this article as a reference to the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of equality between men and women only.”
Maldives 31, 37, 38

23 June 1999


Reservations:
       “... 2. The Government of the Republic of Maldives reserves its right to apply article 16 of the Convention concerning the equality of men and women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations without prejudice to the provisions of the Islamic Sharia, which govern all marital and family relations of the 100 percent Muslim population of the Maldives."

Malta

Reservations:
       "A. Article 11
       The Government of Malta interprets paragraph 1 of article II, in the light of provisions of paragraph 2 of article 4, as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions, or conditions on the employment of women in certain areas, or the work done by them, where this is considered necessary or desirable to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including such prohibitions, restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international obligations of Malta.
       "B. Article 13
       (i) The Government of Malta reserves the right, notwithstanding anything in the Convention, to continue to apply its tax legislation which deems, in certain circumstances, the income of a married woman to be the income of her husband and taxable as such.
       (ii) The Government of Malta reserves the right to continue to apply its social security legislation which in certain circumstances makes certain benefits payable to the head of the household which is, by such legislation, presumed to be the husband.
       "C. Articles 13, 15, 16
       While the Government of Malta is committed to remove, in as far as possible, all aspects of family and property law which may be considered as discriminatory to females, it reserves the right to continue to apply present legislation in that regard until such time as the law is reformed and during such transitory period until those laws are completely superseded.
       "D. Article 16
       The Government of Malta does not consider itself bound by sub-paragraph (e) of paragraph (1) of article 16 in so far as the same may be interpreted as imposing an obligation on Malta to legalize abortion."

Mauritania 39

Reservation:
       Having seen and examined the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 1979, have approved and do approve it in each and every one of its parts which are not contrary to Islamic Sharia and are in accordance with our Constitution.

Mauritius 40

Reservation:
       "The Government of Mauritius does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention, in pursuance of paragraph 2 of article 29."

Mexico

Upon signature:
       Declaration:
       In signing  ad referendum  the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which the General Assembly opened for signature by States on 18 December 1979, the Government of the United Mexican States wishes to place on record that it is doing so on the understanding that the provisions of the said Convention, which agree in all essentials with the provisions of Mexican legislation, will be applied in Mexico in accordance with the modalities and procedures prescribed by Mexican legislation and that the granting of material benefits in pursuance of the Convention will be as generous as the resources available to the Mexican State permit.

Micronesia (Federated States of) 72

Reservations:
       "1.  The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia advises that it is not at present in a position to take the measures either required by Article 11 (1) (d) of the Convention to enact comparable worth legislation, or by Article 11 (2) (b) to enact maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits throughout the nation;
       2.  The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, in its capacity as trustee of the heritage of diversity within its States under Article V of its Constitution, reserves the right not to apply the provisions of Articles 2 (f), 5, and 16 to the succession of certain well-established traditional titles, and to marital customs that divide tasks or decision-making in purely voluntary or consensual private conduct; and
       3.  The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Article 29 (1) of the Convention, and takes the position that any dispute relating to the interpretation or application of the Convention may only be submitted to arbitration or to the International Court of Justice with the agreement of all parties to the dispute."

Monaco

Declarations:
       1. The implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women does not affect the validity of conventions concluded with France.
       2. The Principality of Monaco deems that the aims of the Convention are to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and to guarantee every individual, irrespective of gender, equality before the law, when the aforementioned aims are in line with the principles stipulated in the Constitution.
       3. The Principality of Monaco declares that no provision in the Convention can be interpreted as impeding the provisions of the laws and regulations of Monaco that are more favourable to women than to men.

Reservations:
       1. The ratification of the Convention by the Principality of Monaco shall have no effect on the constitutional provisions governing the succession to the throne.
       2. The Principality of Monaco reserves the right not to apply the provisions of Article 7, paragraph b, of the Convention regarding recruitment to the police force.
       3. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Article 9 which are not compatible with its nationality laws.
       4. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by Article 16, paragraph 1 (g), regarding the right to choose one's surname.
       5. The Principality of Monaco does not consider itself bound by Article 16, paragraph 1 (e), to the extent that the latter can be interpreted as forcing the legalization of abortion or sterilization.
       6. The Principality of Monaco reserves the right to continue to apply its social security laws which, in certain circumstances, envisage the payment of certain benefits to the head of the household who, according to this legislation, is presumed to be the husband.
       7. The Principality of Monaco declares, in conformity with the provisions of Article 29, paragraph 2, that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of the first paragraph of this article.

Mongolia 41

Morocco 73

Declarations:
       1. With regard to article 2:
       The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco express its readiness to apply the provisions of this article provided that:
       - They are without prejudice to the constitutional requirement that regulate the rules of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Morocco;
       - They do not conflict with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah. It should be noted that certain of the provisions contained in the Moroccan Code of Personal Status according women rights that differ from the rights conferred on men may not be infringed upon or abrogated because they derive primarily from the Islamic Shariah, which strives, among its other objectives, to strike a balance between the spouses in order to preserve the coherence of family life.
       2. With regard to article 15, paragraph 4:
       The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco declares that it can only be bound by the provisions of this paragraph, in particular those relating to the right of women to choose their residence and domicile, to the extent that they are not incompatible with articles 34 and 36 of the Moroccan Code of Personal Status.

Reservations:
       3. With regard to article 29:
       The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco does not consider itself bound by the first paragraph of this article, which provides that any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.
       The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco is of the view that any dispute of this kind can only be referred to arbitration by agreement of all the parties to the dispute.

Myanmar

Reservation:

Article 29
       "[The Government of Myanmar] does not consider itself bound by the provision set forth in the said article."

Netherlands

Declaration:
       "During the preparatory stages of the present Convention and in the course of debates on it in the General Assembly the position of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was that it was not desirable to introduce political considerations such as those contained in paragraphs 10 and 11 of the preamble in a legal instrument of this nature. Moreover, the considerations are not directly related to the achievement of total equality between men and women. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that it must recall its objections to the said paragraphs in the preamble at this occasion."

New Zealand 44, 45, 46

Reservation:
       ...
       "The Government of the Cook Islands reserves the right not to apply article 2 (f) and article 5 (a) to the extent that the customs governing the inheritance of certain Cook Islands chief titles may be inconsistent with those provisions."

Niger 49

Reservations:
       Article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f)
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations with regard to article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), concerning the taking of all appropriate measures to abolish all customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women, particularly in respect of succession.
       Article 5, paragraph (a)
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations with regard to the modification of social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women.
       Article 15, paragraph 4
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that it can be bound by the provisions of this paragraph, particularly those concerning the right of women to choose their residence and domicile, only to the extent that these provisions refer only to unmarried women.
       Article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g)
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses reservations concerning the above-referenced provisions of article 16, particularly those concerning the same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution, the same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and the right to choose a family name.
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that the provisions of article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), article 5, paragraphs (a) and (b), article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g), concerning family relations, cannot be applied immediately, as they are contrary to existing customs and practices which, by their nature, can be modified only with the passage of time and the evolution of society and cannot, therefore, be abolished by an act of authority.
       Article 29
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger expresses a reservation concerning article 29, paragraph 1, which provides that any dispute between two or more States concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.
       In the view of the Government of the Niger, a dispute of this nature can be submitted to arbitration only with the consent of all the parties to the dispute.

Declaration
       The Government of the Republic of the Niger declares that the term "family education" which appears in article 5, paragraph (b), of the Convention should be interpreted as referring to public education concerning the family, and that in any event, article 5 would be applied in compliance with article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Oman

Reservations:
       1. All provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman;
       2. Article 9, paragraph 2, which provides that States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children;
       3. Article 15, paragraph 4, which provides that States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile;
       4. Article 16, regarding the equality of men and women, and in particular subparagraphs (a), (c), and (f) (regarding adoption).
       5. The Sultanate is not bound by article 29, paragraph 1, regarding arbitration and the referral to the International Court of Justice of any dispute between two or more States which is not settled by negotiation.

Pakistan 31, 51, 57

Declaration:
       "The accession by [the] Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the [said Convention] is subject to the provisions of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan."

Reservation:
       "The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention."

Poland 50

Qatar 74

Reservations:
       1. Article 2 (a) in connection with the rules of the hereditary transmission of authority, as it is inconsistent with the provisions of article 8 of the Constitution.
       2. Article 9, paragraph 2, as it is inconsistent with Qatar’s law on citizenship.
       3. Article 15, paragraph 1, in connection with matters of inheritance and testimony, as it is inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic law.
       4. Article 15, paragraph 4, as it is inconsistent with the provisions of family law and established practice.
       5. Article 16, paragraph 1 (a) and (c), as they are inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic law.
       6. Article 16, paragraph 1 (f), as it is inconsistent with the provisions of Islamic law and family law. The State of Qatar declares that all of its relevant national legislation is conducive to the interest of promoting social solidarity.
       ...
       3. In accordance with article 29, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the State of Qatar declares, under the terms of that text, that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article.
       Declaration:
       1. The Government of the State of Qatar accepts the text of article 1 of the Convention provided that, in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law and Qatari legislation, the phrase “irrespective of their marital status” is not intended to encourage family relationships outside legitimate marriage. It reserves the right to implement the Convention in accordance with this understanding.
       2. The State of Qatar declares that the question of the modification of “patterns” referred to in article 5 (a) must not be understood as encouraging women to abandon their role as mothers and their role in child-rearing, thereby undermining the structure of the family.

Republic of Korea 52

Upon signature:
       Reservation:
       "1. The Government of the Republic of Korea does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 9 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 1979.
       "2. Bearing in mind the fundamental principles as embodied in the said Convention, the Government of the Republic of Korea has recently established the Korea Women's welfare and social activities. A committee under the chairmanship of the prime minister will shortly be set up to consider and coordinate overall policies on women.
       "3. The Government of the Republic of Korea will make continued efforts to take further measures in line with the provisions stipulated in the Convention."

Upon ratification:
       Reservation:
       "The Government of the Republic of Korea, having examined the said Convention, hereby ratifies the Convention considering itself not bound by the provisions of [...] sub-paragraph [...] (g) of paragraph 1 of Article 16 of the Convention."

Romania 53

Russian Federation 54

Saudi Arabia

Reservations:
       “1. In case of contradiction between any term of the Convention and the norms of islamic law, the Kingdom is not under obligation to observe the contradictory terms of the Convention.
       2. The Kingdom does not consider itself bound by paragraphe 2 of article 9 of the Convention and paragraph 1 of article 29 of the Convention.”

Singapore 31, 55, 57, 75

Reservations:
       (1) In the context of Singapore's multiracial and multi-religious society and the need to respect the freedom of minorities to practice their religious and personal laws, the Republic of Singapore reserves the right not to apply the provisions of articles 2, paragraphs (a) to (f), and article 16, paragraphs 1(a), 1(c), 1(h), and article 16, paragraph 2, where compliance with these provisions would be contrary to their religious or personal laws.
       (2) [...]
       (3) Singapore interprets article 11, paragraph 1 in the light of the provisions of article 4, paragraph 2 as not precluding prohibitions, restrictions or conditions on the employment of women in certain areas, or on work done by them where this is considered necessary or desirable to protect the health and safety of women or the human foetus, including such prohibitions, restrictions or conditions imposed in consequence of other international obligations of Singapore and considers that legislation in respect of article 11 is unnecessary for the minority of women who do not fall within the ambit of Singapore's employmentlegislation.
       (4) The Republic of Singapore declares, in pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2 of the Convention that it will not be bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1.

Slovakia 17

Spain

Declaration:
       The ratification of the Convention by Spain shall not affect the constitutional provisions concerning succession to the Spanish crown.

Switzerland 58
       .....

(c) Reservation concerning article 15, paragraph 2, and article 16, paragraph 1 (h):
       Said provisions shall be applied subject to several interim provisions of the matrimonial regime (Civil Code, articles 9 (e) and 10, final section).

Syrian Arab Republic

Reservation:
       ..... subject to reservations to article 2; article 9, paragraph 2, concerning the grant of a woman's nationality to her children; article 15, paragraph 4, concerning freedom of movement and of residence and domicile; article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), concerning equal rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution with regard to guardianship, the right to choose a family name, maintenance and adoption; article 16, paragraph 2, concerning the legal effect of the betrothal and the marriage of a child, inasmuch as this provision is incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah; and article 29, paragraph 1, concerning arbitration between States in the event of a dispute.
       The accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to this Convention shall in no way signify recognition of Israel or entail entry into any dealings with Israel in the context of the provisions of the Convention..

Thailand 59

Declaration:
       The Royal Thai Government wishes to express its understanding that the purposes of the Convention are to eliminate discrimination against women and to accord to every person, men and women alike, equality before the law, and are in accordance with the principles prescribed by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand.

Reservation:
       3. The Royal Thai Government does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention.

Trinidad and Tobago

Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       "The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 29 (1) of the said Convention, relating to the settlement of disputes."

Tunisia

1. General declaration:
       The Tunisian Government declares that it shall not take any organizational or legislative decision in conformity with the requirements of this Convention where such a decision would conflict with the provisions of chapter I of the Tunisian Constitution.

2. Reservation concerning article 9, paragraph 2:
       The Tunisian Government expresses its reservation with regard to the provisions in article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention, which must not conflict with the provisions of chapter VI of the Tunisian Nationality Code.

3. Reservation concerning article 16, paragraphs (c), (d), (f), (g) and (h):
       The Tunisian Government considers itself not bound by article 16, paragraphs (c), (d) and (f) of the Convention and declares that paragraphs (g) and (h) of that article must not conflict with the provisions of the Personal Status Code concerning the granting of family names to children and the acquisition of property through inheritance.

4. Reservation concerning article 29, paragraph 1:
       The Tunisian Government declares, in conformity with the requirements of article 29, paragraph 2 of the Convention, that it shall not be bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of that article which specify that any dispute between two or more States  Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall be referred to the International Court of Justice at the request of any one of those parties.
       The Tunisian Government considers that such disputes should be submitted for arbitration or consideration by the International Court of Justice only with the consent of all parties to the dispute.

5. Declaration concerning article 15, paragraph4:
       In accordance with the provisions of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, dated 23 May 1969, the Tunisian Government emphasizes that the requirements of article 15, paragraph 4, of the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women, and particularly that part relating to the right of women to choose their residence and domicile, must not be interpreted in a manner which conflicts with the provisions of the Personal Status Code on this subject, as set forth in chapters 23 and 61 of the Code.

Turkey 76

Reservations:
       " With respect to article 29, paragraph 1
       In pursuance of article 29, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of the Republic of Turkey declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article."
       [.....]

Ukraine 54

United Arab Emirates 60

Reservations:
       The United Arab Emirates makes reservations to articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2), 16 and 29 (1) of the Convention, as follows:
       Article 2 (f)
       The United Arab Emirates, being of the opinion that this paragraph violates the rules of inheritance established in accordance with the precepts of the Shariah, makes a reservation thereto and does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.
       Article 9
       The United Arab Emirates, considering the acquisition of nationality an internal matter which is governed, and the conditions and controls of which are established, by national legislation makes a reservation to this article and does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.
       Article 15 (2)
       The United Arab Emirates, considering this paragraph in conflict with the precepts of the Shariah regarding legal capacity, testimony and the right to conclude contracts, makes a reservation to the said paragraph of the said article and does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.
       Article 16
       The United Arab Emirates will abide by the provisions of this article insofar as they are not in conflict with the principles of the Shariah.  The United Arab Emirates considers that the payment of a dower and of support after divorce is an obligation of the husband, and the husband has the right to divorce, just as the wife has her independent financial security and her full rights to her property and is not required to pay her husband's or her own expenses out of her own property.  The Shariah makes a woman's right to divorce conditional on a judicial decision, in a case in which she has been harmed.
       Article 29 (1)
       The United Arab Emirates appreciates and respects the functions of this article, which provides:
       "Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months...the parties are unable..." [any one of those parties] "may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice..." This article, however, violates the general principle that matters are submitted to an arbitration panel by agreement between the parties. In addition, it might provide an opening for certain States to bring other States to trial in defence of their nationals; the case might then be referred to the committee charged with discussing the State reports required by the Convention and a decision might be handed down against the State in question for violating the provisions of the Convention.  For these reasons the United Arab Emirates makes a reservation to this article and does not consider itself bound by the provisions thereof.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 61, 62

Upon signature:
       "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declare that it is their intention to make certain reservations and declarations upon ratification of the Convention.

Upon ratification:
       "A. On behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
       (a) The United Kingdom understands the main purpose of the Convention, in the light of the definition contained in Article 1, to be the reduction, in accordance with its terms, of discrimination against women, and does not therefore regard the Convention as imposing any requirement to repeal or modify any existing laws, regulations, customs or practices which provide for women to be treated more favourably than men, whether temporarily or in the longer term; the United Kingdom's undertakings under Article 4, paragraph 1, and other provisions of the Convention are to be construed accordingly."
       ...
       (c) In the light of the definition contained in Article 1, the United Kingdom's ratification is subject to the understanding that none of its obligations under the Convention shall be treated as extending to the succession to, or possession and enjoyment of, the Throne, the peerage, titles of honour, social precedence or armorial bearings, or as extending to the affairs of religious denominations or orders or any act done for the purpose of ensuring the combat effectiveness of the Armed Forces of the Crown."
       ...
       "Article 9
       The British Nationality Act 1981, which was brought into force with effect from January 1983, is based on principles which do not allow of any discrimination against women within the meaning of Article 1 as regards acquisition, change or retention of their nationality or as regards the nationality of theirchildren.  The United Kingdom's acceptance of Article 9 shall not, how ever, be taken to invalidate the continuation of certain temporary or transitional provisions which will ctinue in force beyond that date."
       ...
       "Article 11
       ...
       "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply all United Kingdom legislation and the rules of pension schemes affecting retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and other benefits in relation to death or retirement (including retirement on grounds of redundancy), whether or not derived from a Social Security scheme."
       "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace such legislation, or the rules of pension schemes, on the understanding that the terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention."
       "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply the following provisions of United Kingdom legislation concerning the benefits specified:
       ...
       b) increases of benefits for adult dependants under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the Social Security Act 1975 and under sections 44 to 47, 49 and 66 of the Social Security (Northern Ireland) Act 1975;
       ...
       The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in Article 11 (2)."
       "Article 15
       ...
       "In relation to Article 15, paragraph 3, the United Kingdom understands the intention of this provision to be that only those terms or elements of a contract or other private instrument which are discriminatory in the sense described are to be deemed null and void, but not necessarily the contract or instrument as a whole."
       "Article 16
       As regards sub-paragraph 1 (f) of Article 16, the United Kingdom does not regard the reference to the paramountcy of the interests of the children as being directly relevant to the elimination of discrimination against women, and declares in this connection that the legislation of the United Kingdom regulating adoption, while giving a principal position to the promotion of the children's welfare, does not give to the child's interests the same paramount place as in issues concerning custody over children."
       ...
       "B. On behalf of the Isle of Man, the British Virgin Islands, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands:
       

[Same reservations as the one made on behalf of the United Kingdom under paragraphs A (a), (c), and (d) except that in the of case d) it applies to the territories and their laws).]

       Article 1
       
[Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except with regard to the absence of a reference to United Kingdom legislation.]

       Article 2
       
[Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom except that reference is made to the laws of the territories, and not the laws of the United Kingdom.]

       Article 9
       
[Same reservation as the one made in respect of the United Kingdom.]

       Article 11
       
[Same reservation as those made in respect of the United Kingdom except that a reference is made to the laws of the territories, and not to the laws of the United Kingdom.]

       "Also, as far as the territories are concerned, the specific benefits listed and which may be applied under the provisions of these territories' legislation are as follows:
       a) social security benefits for persons engaged in caring for a severely disabled person;
       b) increases of benefit for adult dependants;
       c) retirement pensions and survivors' benefits;
       d) family income supplements.
       "This reservation will apply equally to any future legislation which may modify or replace any of the provisions specified in sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) above, on the understanding that the terms of such legislation will be compatible with the United Kingdom's obligations under the Convention."
       "The United Kingdom reserves the right to apply any non-discriminatory requirement for a qualifying period of employment or insurance for the application of the provisions contained in Article 11 (2)."
       Article 13, 15 and 16
       
[Same reservations as those made on behalf the United Kingdom.]

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Reservation made upon ratification confirming in substance the reservation made upon signature:
       Venezuela makes a formal reservation with regard to article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention, since it does not accept arbitration or the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention.

Viet Nam

Reservation:
       In implementing this Convention, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam will not be bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 article 29.

Yemen 64
       The Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen declares that it does not consider itself bound by article 29, paragraph 1, of the said Convention, relating to the settlement of disputes which may arise concerning the application or interpretation of the Convention.

Objections
(Unless otherwise indicated, the objections were made
upon ratification, accession or succession.)
Austria

26 October 1994

With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:

       "The reservation made by the Maldives is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and is therefore inadmissible under article 19 (c) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and shall not be permitted, in accordance with article 28 (2) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Austria therefore states that this reservation cannot alter or modify in any respect the obligations arising from the Convention for any State Party thereto."

5 June 1997

With regard to the declaration made by Pakistan upon accession:

       "Austria is of the view that a reservation by which a State limits its responsibilities under the Convention in a general and unspecified manner by invoking internal law creates doubts as to the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan with its obligations under the Convention, essential for the fulfillment of its object and purpose.
       It is in the common interests of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become Parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all Parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       Austria is further of the view that a general reservation of the kind made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which does not clearly specify the provisions of the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom, contributes to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
       Given the general character of this reservation a final assessment as to its admissibility under international law cannot be made without further clarification.
       According to international law a reservation is inadmissible to the extent as its application negatively affects the compliance by a State with its obligations under the Convention essential for the fulfillment of its object and purpose.
       Therefore, Austria cannot consider the reservation made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan as admissible unless the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, by providing additional information or through subsequent practice, ensures that the reservation is compatible with the provisions essential for the implementation of the object and purpose of the Convention.
       This view by Austria would not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between Pakistan and Austria."

20 February 1998

With regard to reservations made by Lebanon upon accession:

       
[Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Pakistan.]

21 August 2001

With regard to reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:

       "Austria has examined the reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in its note to the Secretary-General of 7 September 2000.
       The fact that the reservation concerning any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that is incompatible with the norms of Islamic law does not clearly specify the provisions of the Convention to which it applies and the extent of the derogation therefrom raises doubts as to the commitment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention.
       Given the general character of this reservation a final assessment as to its admissibility under international law cannot be made without further clarification.  Until the scope of the legal effects of this reservation is sufficiently specified by the Government of Saudi Arabia, Austria considers the reservation as not affecting any provision the implementation of which is essential to fulfilling the object and purpose of the Convention.  In Austria's view, however, the reservation in question is inadmissible to the extent that its application negatively affects the compliance by Saudi Arabia with its obligations under the Convention essential for the fulfilment of its object and purpose.  Austria does not consider the reservation made by the Government of Saudi Arabia as admissible unless the Government of Saudi Arabia, by providing additional information or through subsequent practice, ensures that the reservation is compatible with the provisions essential for the implementation of the object and purpose of the Convention.
       As to the reservation to Paragraph 2 of Article 9 of the Convention Austria is of the view that the exclusion of such an important provision of non-discrimination is not compatible with object and purpose of the Convention.  Austria therefore objects to this reservation.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between Saudi Arabia and Austria."

With regard to reservations made by the Democcratic Republic of Korea upon accession:

       "Austria has examined the reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in its note to the Secretary General of 27 February 2001.
       Taking into consideration that according to Paragraph 2 of Article 28 of the Convention, reservations which are incompatible with the objective and purpose of the Convention are not acceptable, Austria objects to the reservations in respect of Paragraph f of Article 2 and Paragraph 2 of Article 9.
       Both Paragraphs refer to basic aspects of the Convention, that are legislation to abolish existing discrimination against women and a specific form of discrimination, such as the nationality of children.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Austria."

13 February 2002

With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania in its note to the Secretary-General of 5 June 2001.
       The Government of Austria considers that, in the absence of further clarification, this reservation raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by Mauritania in becoming a party to the Convention since it refers to the contents of Islamic Sharia and to existing national legislation in Mauritania.  The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to art. 28 (2) of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to this reservation made by the Government of Mauritania.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between Mauritania and Austria."

31 March 2003

With regard to the reservation made by Bahrain upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women made by the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain in its note to the Secretary-General of 18 June 2002, regarding articles 2, 9(2), 15(4) and 16.
       The reservation to articles 9(2) and 15(4), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex.  This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification, the reservation to articles 2 and 16 which does not clearly specify the extent of Bahrain's derogation from the provisions in question raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by Bahrain in becoming a party to the Convention since it refers to the contents of Islamic Sharia.
       The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to art. 28(2) of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to this reservation made by the Government of Bahrain.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between Bahrain and Austria."

14 August 2003

With regard to the reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2.
       The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex. This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification, the reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, which refers to the contents of Islamic Sharia, does not clearly specify the extent of the reservation and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by the Syrian Arab Republic in becoming a party to the Convention.
       The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between the Syrian Arab Republic and Austria."

5 October 2005

With regard to the reservations made by the United Arab Emirates upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservation made by the Government of the United Arab Emirates upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women regarding articles 2 (f), 9, 15 (2), 16 and 29 (1).
       The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 2 (f), article 9, article 15 (2) and article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex.  This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Astria would like to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations underthe treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the United Arab Emirates to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This position, however, does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between the United Arab Emirates and Austria."

18 December 2006

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of Austria finds that the reservation to article 9, paragraph 2 would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex.  This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification, the reservation "regarding those provisions of the said Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam" does not clearly specify its extent and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by Brunei Darussalam in becoming a party to the Convention.
       The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations made by Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This position however does not preclude the entry into force in its enirety of the Convention between Brunei Darussalam and Austria."

5 January 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:

       "The Government of Austria has examined the reservations made by the Government of the Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, and article 16 would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex.  This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Austria further considers that, in the absence of further clarification, the reservation to "all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman" does not clearly specify its extent and therefore raises doubts as to the degree of commitment assumed by the Sultanate of Oman in becoming a party to the Convention.
       The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Art. 19 sub-paragraph c), a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the commoninterest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are requested as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This position however does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between the Sultanate of Oman and Austria."

12 February 2010

With regard to the reservations made by Qatar upon accession:

       “The Government of Austria has examined the reservations made by the State of Qatar upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of Austria finds that the reservations to article 9 paragraph 2, article 15 paragraphs 2 and 4, article 16 paragraphs 1a, 1c and 1f would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex. These reservations affect essential obligations arising from the Convention and their observance is necessary in order to achieve the purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Austria would like to recall that, according to article 28 paragraph 2 of the Convention as well as customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (article 19 sub-paragraph c), a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       For these reasons, the Government of Austria objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the State of Qatar to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This position however does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention between the State of Qatar and Austria.”

24 June 2011

With regard to the reservations made by Maysia upon accession:

       “The Government of Austria has examined the modification of the reservations made by Malaysia to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women as notified on 19 July 2010.
       In the view of Austria a reservation should clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention.  A reservation which consists of a general reference to constitutional provisions and Islamic Sharia law without specifying its implications does not do so.  The Government of Austria therefore objects to this general reservation.
       The Government of Austria further finds that the reservations to articles 9 (2), 16 (1) a, 16 (1) f and 16 (1) g, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex.  This is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  The Government of Austria therefore objects to these reservations.
       This position, however, does not affect the application of the Convention in its entirety between Austria and Malaysia.”
Belgium

30 April 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalem upon accession:

       Belgium has carefully examined the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam when it acceded, on 24 May 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979. Belgium notes that the reservation formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2, concerns a fundamental provision of the Convention and is therefore incompatible with the object and purpose of that instrument.
       In addition, the reservation makes the implementation of the Convention's provisions contingent upon their compatibility with the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam. This creates uncertainty as to which of its obligations under the Convention Brunei Darussalam intends to observe and raises doubts as to Brunei Darussalam's respect for the object and purpose of the Convention.
       Belgium recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted. It is in the common interest for all parties to respect the treaties to which they have acceded and for States to be willing to enact such legislative amendments as may be necessary in order to fulfil their treaty obligations. Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not permitted (article 19 (c)).
       In consequence, Belgium objects to the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam with respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and Brunei Darussalam. The Convention shall enter into force in its entirety, without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation.

30 April 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:

       Belgium has carefully examined the reservation formulated by the Sultanate of Oman when it acceded, on 7 February 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979. Belgium notes that the reservation formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2; article 15, paragraph 4; and article 16 concerns fundamental provisions of the Convention and is therefore incompatible with the object and purpose of that instrument.
       In addition, the first paragraph of the reservation makes the implementation of the Convention's provisions contingent upon their compatibility with the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman. This creates uncertainty as to which of its obligations under the Convention the Sultanate of Oman intends to observe and raises doubts as to Oman's respect for the object and purpose of the Convention.
       Belgium recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted. It is in the common interest for all parties to respect the treaties to which they have acceded and for States to be willing to enact such legislative amendments as may be necessary in order to fulfil their treaty obligations. Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purposeof a treaty is not permitted (article 19 (c)).
       In consequence, Belgium objects to the reservation formulated by the Sultanate of Oman with respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and the Sultanate of Oman. The Convention shall enter into force in its entirety, without Oman benefiting from its reservation.

9 April 2010

With regard to the reservations made by Qatar upon accession:

       Belgium has carefully examined the reservation formulated by Qatar when it acceded, on 29 April 2009, to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The reservations make the implementation of the Convention’s provisions contingent upon their compatibility with the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in Qatar. This creates uncertainty as to which of its obligations under the Convention Qatar intends to observe and raises doubts as to Qatar’s respect for the object and purpose of the Convention.
       It is in the common interest for all parties to respect the treaties to which they have acceded and for States to be willing to enact such legislative amendments as may be necessary in order to fulfill their treaty obligations.
       Belgium notes, moreover, that the reservations formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2; article 15, paragraphs 1 and 4; and article 16, paragraphs 1 (a), 1 (c) and 1 (f) concern fundamental provisions of the Convention and are therefore incompatible with the object and purpose of that instrument.
       Belgium recalls that under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted. In addition, under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not permitted (article 19 (c)).
       In consequence, Belgium objects to the reservation formulated by Qatar with respect to article 9, paragraph 2; article 15, paragraphs 1 and 4; and article 16, paragraphs 1 (a), 1 (c) and 1 (f) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and Qatar.
Canada

25 October 1994

With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:

       "In the view of the Government of Canada, this reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention (article 28, paragraph 2). The Government of Canada therefore enters its formal objection to this reservation. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention as between Canada and the Republic of Maldives."

14 June 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:

       "Canada has carefully examined the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam when it acceded, on 24 May 2006, to the Convention on the Elimination of Al Forms of Discrimination against Women, adopted in New York on 18 December 1979.
       Canada notes that the reservation formulated with respect to article 9, paragraph 2, concerns a fundamental provision of the Convention and is therefore incompatible with the object and purpose of that instrument.
       In addition, the reservation makes the implementation of the Convention's provisions contingent upon their compatibility with the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and the beliefs and principles of Islam, the official religion of Brunei Darussalam.  The Government of Canada notes that such general reservation of unlimited scope and undefined character does not clearly  define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which Brunei Darussalam has accepted the obligations of the Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.  Accordingly, the Government of Canada considers this reservation to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become party are respected, as to their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
       Canada recalls that, under article 28, paragraph 2, of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       Under customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty is not permitted.
       In consequence, Canada objects to the reservation formulated by Brunei Darussalam with respect to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.  This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Canada and Brunei Darussalam.  The Convention shall enter into force in its entirety, without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation."

Czech Republic

12 January 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:

       "The Government of the Czech Republic has examined the reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Government of the Czech Republic is of the view that the reservations made to Article 9 paragraph 2, Article 15, paragraph 4 and Article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  Furthermore, the Government of the Czech Republic notes that the reservation regarding all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in the Sultanate of Oman does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the Sultanate of Oman has accepted the obligations of the Convention and therefore raises concerns as to its commitment to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.  According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention and according to customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation that is incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       The Government of the Czech Republic therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention.  This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Czech Republic and the Sultanate of Oman.  The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the Czech Republic and the Sultanate of Oman, without the Sultanate of Oman benefiting from its reservation."

11 April 2007

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:

       "The Government of the Czech Republic has examined the reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women regarding Article 9 paragraph 2 and those provisions of the Convention that may be contrary to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam.
       The Government of the Czech Republic notes that a reservation to a Convention which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention. Furthermore, the reservation made to Article 9 paragraph 2, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.  According to Article 28 paragraph 2 of the Convention and according to customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation that is incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       The Government of the Czech Republic therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention.  This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Czech Republic and Brunei Darussalam.  The Convention enters into force inits entirety between the Czech Republic and Brunei Darussalam, without Brunei Darussalam benefiting from its reservation."

10 November 2009

With regard to the reservations made by Qatar upon accession:

       “The Czech Republic has examined the reservations and declarations made by the State of Qatar upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       The Czech Republic believes that the reservations No. 2 – 6 of the State of Qatar made to Articles 9(2), 15(1), 15(4), 16(1)(a) and (c) and 16(1)(f) of the Convention, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. Furthermore, the State of Qatar supports these reservations by references to its domestic law, which is, in the opinion of the Czech Republic, unacceptable under customary international law, as codified in Article 27 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Finally, the reservations No. 3 – 6, that refer to the notions such as “Islamic law” and “established practice” without specifying its contents, do not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention.
       It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties. According to Article 28 paragraph 2 of the Convention and according to customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation that is incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
       The Czech Republic, therefore, objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the State of Qatar to the Convention. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Czech Republic and the State of Qatar. The Convention enters into force in its entirety between the Czech Republic and the State of Qatar, without the State of Qatar benefiting from its reservation.”
Denmark

3 July 1990

With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has taken note of the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya when acceding [to the said Convention]. In the view of the Government of Denmark this reservation is subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for failure to perform a treaty."

2 November 2000

With regard to the reservations to article 2, paragraphs (d) and (f), article 5, paragraph (a), article 15, paragraph (4) and article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (e) and (g) made by Niger upon accession:
       “The Government of Denmark finds that the reservations made by the Government of Niger are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.  The provisions in respect of which Niger has made reservations cover fundamental rights of women and establish key elements for the elimination of discrimination against women.  For this reason, the Government of Denmark objects to the said reservations made by the Government of Niger.
       The Convention remains in force in its entirety between Niger and Denmark.
       It is the opinion of the Government of Denmark, that no time limit applies to objections against reservations, which are inadmissible under international law.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Niger to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women."

10 August 2001

With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of Saudi Arabia upon ratification on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women as to any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that is incompatibleith the norms of Islamic law.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the provisions of Islamic law are of unlimited scope and undefined character.  Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as being incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of article 9 of the Convention aims to exclude one obligation of non-discrimination which is the aim of the Convention and therefore renders this reservation contrary to the essence of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Saudi Arabia and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Saudi Arabia to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women."

21 February 2002

With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of Mauritania upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women as to any interpretation of the provisions of the Convention that is incompatiblewith the norms of Islamic law and the Constitution in Mauritania.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the provisions of Islamic law and the Constitution are of unlimited scope and undefined character.  Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservation as being incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible andwithout effect under international law.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforesaid reservation made by the Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women.
       This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Mauritania and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Mauritania to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women."

With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon accession to the Convention on [the] Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in respect of paragraph (f) of article 2 and paragraph 2 of article 9.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to paragraph (f) of article 2 aims at excluding the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the obligation to adopt necessary measures, including those of a legislative character, to eliminate any form of discrimination against women.  This provision touches upon a key element for effective elimination of discrimination against women.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation toparagraph 2 of article 9 of the Convention aims to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the said reservation made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of [the] Democratic People's Republic of Korea to reconsider its reservations to the Convention.
       The Convention on [the] Elimination of All Forms Discrimination Against Women remains in force in its entirety between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Denmark."

28 February 2003

With regard to the reservation made by Bahrain upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of Bahrain upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women regarding article 2, paragraph 2 of article 9, paragraph 4 of article 15 and article 16.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to articles 2 and 16 with reference to the provisions of Islamic Sharia is of unlimited scope and undefined character.  Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations as being incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations to paragraph 2 of article 9 and to paragraph 4 of article 15 of the Convention seek to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention.  The Government of Denmark finds thatthese reservations made by the Government of Bahrain are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Government of Bahrain to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Bahrain and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Bahrain to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women."

27 May 2003

With regard to the reservation made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women regarding article 2, article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2 in its note of 7 April 2003, to the Secretary-General of the United Nations distributed under reference No. C.N.267.2003.TREATIES-6.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the reservation to article 2 seeks to evade the obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention.  The Government of Denmark is of the view that a general reservation to one of the core articles of the Convention raises doubts as to the commitment of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4, article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) and article 16, paragraph 2, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. It should be borne in mind that the principles of equal rights of men and women and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of the purposes of the organization, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
       The Government of Denmark finds that these reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Denmark recalls that according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       This shall not prelude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between the Syrian Arab Republic and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women."

6 October 2006

With regard to the reservations made by Oman upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women regarding article 9 (2), 15 (4), 16 (a, c, f), and all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the principles of the Islamic Sharia.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation with reference to the provisions of the Islamic Sharia is of unlimited scope and undefined character.  The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman to article 9 (2), 15 (4), and 16 (a, c, f) would inevitable result in the discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
       The Government of Denmark wishes to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.  This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Oman and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Sultanate of Oman to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women."

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:

       "The Government of Denmark has examined the reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam upon accession to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women regarding article 9 (2) and all provisions of the Convention not in accordance with the principles of Islam.
       The Government of Denmark finds that the general reservation made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam with reference to the principles of Islam is of unlimited scope and undefined character. The Government of Denmark furthermore notes that the reservation to article 9 (2) would inevitably result in the discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  Consequently, the Government of Denmark considers the said reservations to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and accordingly inadmissible and without effect under international law.
       The Government of Denmark wishes to recall that, according to article 28 (2) of the Convention, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Denmark therefore objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.  This shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention in its entirety between Brunei Darussalam and Denmark.
       The Government of Denmark recommends the Government of Brunei Darussalam to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.”
Estonia

1 April 2004

With regard to the reservation made by the Syrian Arab Republic upon accession:

       "The Government of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to Article 2, paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15 and to paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g) of Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       Article 2 of the Convention is one of the core articles of the Convention.  By making a reservation to this article, the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic is making a reservation of general scope that renders the provisions of the Convention completely ineffective. The Government of Estonia considers the reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, article 15, paragraph 4 and article 16, paragraphs 1 (c), (d), (f) and (g), if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  It should be borne in mind that the principles of equal rights of men and women and of non-discrimination on the basis of sex are set forth in the Charter of the United Nations as one of the purposes of the organization, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
       The reservation to article 16, paragraph 2, makes a general reference to the Islamic Shariah.  The Government of Estonia is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this reservation which does not clearly specify the extent of the Syrian Arab Republic's derogation from the provision in question raises serious doubts as to the commitment of the Syrian Arab Republic to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Estonia recalls that according to article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shal not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the afore-mentioned reservation made by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Syrian Arab Republic and Estonia.  The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without the Syrian Arab Republic benefiting from its reservations.
       The Government of Estonia recommends the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic to reconsider its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women."

4 December 2006

With regard to the reservations made by Brunei Darussalam upon accession:

       "The Government of the Republic of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to Article 9, paragraph 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The reservation to Article 9, paragraph 2, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       Furthermore, the reservation made by Brunei Darussalam makes a general reference to the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam.  The Government of Estonia is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, the reservation makes it unclear to what extent the State of Brunei Darussalam considers itself bound by the obligations of the Convention and therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of the State of Brunei Darussalam to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the reservation to Article 9, paragraph 2, and to the general reservation regarding the Constitution of Brunei Darussalam and to the beliefs and principles of Islam, made by the Government of Brunei Darussalam to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women as between the Republic of Estonia and the State of Brunei Darussalam."

With regard to the reservation made by Oman upon accession:

       "The Government of the Republic of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made by the Government of Sultanate of Oman to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15, and subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The reservations to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15, and subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of Article 16, if put into practice, would inevitably result in discrimination against women on the basis of sex, which is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.  In particular, Article 16 is one of the core provisions of the Convention to which reservations are incompatible with the Convention and therefore impermissible.
       Furthermore, section one of the reservation makes a general reference to the provisions of the Islamic sharia and legislation in force in theSultanate of Oman.  The Government of Estonia is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this reservation makes it unclear to what extent the Sultanate of Oman considers itself bound by the obligations of the Convention and therefore raises concerns as to the commitment of the Sultanate of Oman to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the general reservation made in section one, and reservations to paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15, and subparagraphs (a), (c) and (f) of Article 16, made by the Government of the Sultanate of Oman to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women as between the Republic of Estonia and the Sultanate of Oman".

29 April 2010

Objection to the reservations made by Qatar upon accession:

       “The Government of Estonia has carefully examined the reservations made on 29 April 2009 by the Government of the State of Qatar to Articles 2 (a), 9 (2), 15 (1), 15 (4), 16 (1) (a), 16 (1) (c) and 16 (1) (f) of the Convention.
       The Government of Estonia wishes to recall that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits itself to eliminate discrimination against women in all its forms and manifestations thereby taking all appropriate measures to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations and practices which constitute such discrimination.
       A reservation which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its content does not clearly indicate to what extent the State of Qatar commits itself when acceding to the Government and thus is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
       According to Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Convention as well as to customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention shall not be permitted.
       The Government of Estonia therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of the State of Qatar to the Convention.
       Notwithstanding, this objection shall not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Convention as between the Republic of Estonia and the State of Qatar.”
Finland

8 June 1990

With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession (see also objection made on 16 October 1996, hereinafter, with regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession, as modified on 5 July 1995):

       "The Government of Finland has examined the contents of the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and considers the said reservation as being incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.  The Government of Finland therefore enters its formal objection to this reservation.
       "This objection is not an obstacle to the entry into force of the said Convention between Finland and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya."

5 May 1994

With regard to the reservations made by Maldives upon accession:

       In the view of the Government of Finland, the unlimited and undefined character of the said reservations create serious doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. In their extensive formulation, they are clearly contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. Therefore, the Government of Finland objects to such reservations.
       The Government of Finland also recalls that the said reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as a justification for failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland does not, however, consider that this objection constitutes an obstacle to the entry into force of the Convention between Finland and Maldives."

17 January 1996

With regard to the reservations made by Kuwait upon accession:

       "The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and manifestations, against women. In particular, aricle 7 requires States Parties to undertake actions to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country. This is a fundamental provision of the Convention the implementation of which is essential to fulfilling its object and purpose.
       Reservations to article 7 (a) and article 9 paragraph 2 are both subject to the general principle of the observance of treaties according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for its failure to perform its treaty obligations. It is in the common interest of States that contracting parties to international treaties are prepared to undertake the necessary legislative changes in order to fulfill the object and purpose of the treaty.
       Furthermore, in the view of the Government of Finland, the unlimited and undefined character of the reservation to article 16 (f) leaves open to what extent the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Reservations of such unspecified nature may contribute to undermining the basis of international human rights treaties.
       In their present formulation the reservations are clearly incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention and therefore inadmissible under article 28 paragraph 2, of the said Convention. Therefore, the Government of Finland objects to these reservations. The Government of Finland further notes that the reservations made by the Government of Kuwait are devoid oflegal effect.
       The Government of Finland recommends the Government of Kuwait to reconsider its reservations to the [said] Convention."

16 October 1996

With regard to the reservation made by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya upon accession, as modified (see objection under 8 June 1990 and note 28):

       "A reservation which consists of a general reference to religious law without specifying i contents does not clearly define to the other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore may cast doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention. Such a reservation is also, in the view of the Government of Finland, subject to the general principle of the observance of treaties according to which a Party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for failure to perform a treaty."

With regard to the reservations made by Malaysia upon accession:

       "The reservations made by Malaysia, consisting of a general reference to religious and national law without specifying the contents thereof and without stating unequivocally the provisions the legal effect of which may be excluded or modified, do not clearly define to the other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to fulfill its obligations under the Convention. Reservations of such unspecified nature may contribute to undermining the basis of international human rights treaties.
       The Government of Finland also recalls that the reservations of Malaysia are subject to the general principles of observance of treaties according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for failure to perform its treaty obligations. It is in the common interest of States that Parties to international treaties are prepared to take the necessary legislative changes in order to fulfil the object and purpose of the treaty.
       Furthermore, the reservations made by Malaysia, in particular to articles 2 (f) and 5 (a), are two fundamental provisions of the Convention the implementation of which is essential to fulfilling its object and purpose.
       The Government of Finland considers that in their present formulation the reservations made by Malaysia are clearly incompatible with the object and purpose of the said Convention and therefore inadmissible under article 28, paragraph 2, of the said Convention. In view of the above, the Government of Finland objects to these reservations and notes that they are devoid of legal effect."

1 November 1996

With regard to the reservations made by Lesotho upon ratification:

       
[Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]

21 November 1996

With regard to the reservations made by Singapore upon accession:

       
[ Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia .]

6 June 1997

With regard to the declaration made by Pakistan upon accession:

       
[Same objection, mutatis mutandis, as the one made for Malaysia.]

24 October 2000

With regard to the reservations made by Niger  upon accession:

       “ The Government of Finland notes that the reservations [..] are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention. By acceding to the Convention, a State commits itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination against women, in all its forms and manifestations.  This includes taking appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish i.e. customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women.
       As it appears evident that the Government of the Republic of Niger will not apply the Convention with a view to fulfilling its treaty obligations to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and submits reservations to some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, the above-mentioned reservations are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to which reservations incompible with object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by the Government of Niger to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Niger and Finland.  The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without benefitting from the reservations."

8 October 2002

With regard to the reservations made by Saudi Arabia upon ratification:

       "The Government of Finland has examined the contents of the reservations made by the Government of Saudi Arabia to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commits itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and manifestations, against women.
       A reservation which consistsof a general reference to religious law and national law without specifying its contents, as the first part of the reservation made by Saudi Arabia, does not clearly define to other Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.
       Furthermore, reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       As the reservation to Paragraph 2 of Article 9 aims to exclude one of the fundamental obligations under the Convention, it is the view of the Government of Finland that the reservation is not compatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by the Government of Saudi Arabia to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Saudi Arabia and Finland.  The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without Saudi Arabia benefiting from the reservations."

5 March 2002

With regard to the reservations made by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea upon accession:

       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made by the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland recalls that by acceding to the Convention, a State commit itself to adopt the measures required for the elimination of discrimination, in all its forms and manifestations, against women.
       The Government of Finland notes that the reservation to paragraph (f) of Article 2 aims at excluding the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the obligations to adopt necessary measures, including those of a legislative character, to eliminate any form of discrimination against women.  This provision touches upon a key element for effective elimination of discrimination against women.
       The Government of Finland further notes that the reservation to paragraph 2 of Article 9 of the Convention aims to exclude an obligation of non-discrimination, which is the aim of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       The Government of Finland finds that the reservations made by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are not in conformity with the object and purpose of the Convention and therefore objects to the said reservations.
       This oection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the People's Democratic Republic of Korea and Finland.  The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without the People's Democratic Republic of Korea benefiting from the reservations."

20 May 2002

With regard to the reservation made by Mauritania upon accession:

       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservation made by the Government of Mauritania to the Convention on the Elimination of allForms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.
       Furthermore, reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention according to which reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention are not permitted.
       The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservation made by the Government of Mauritania to the Convention.
       This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Mauritania and Finland.  The Convention will thus become operative between the two states without Mauritania benefiting from the reservations."

10 March 2003

With regard to the reservations made by Bahrain upon accession:

       "The Government of Finland has carefully examined the contents of the reservations made by the Government of Bahrain to Article 2, paragraph 2 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 15 and to Article 16 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
       The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference to religious or other national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define to other Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and therefore creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to fulfil its obligations under the Convention.  Such reservations are subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
       The Government of Finland further notes that the reservations made by Bahrain, addressing some of the most essential provisions of the Convention, and aiming to exclude some of the fundamental obligations under it, are in contradiction with the object and purpose of the Convention.
       The Government of Finland also recalls Part VI, Article 28 of the Convention accor