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STATUS AS AT : 23-04-2014 05:01:22 EDT
CHAPTER IV
HUMAN RIGHTS
4 . International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
New York, 16 December 1966
Entry into force
:
23 March 1976, in accordance with article 49, for all provisions except those of article 41; 28 March 1979 for the provisions of article 41 (Human Rights Committee), in accordance with paragraph 2 of the said article 41.
Registration :
23 March 1976, No. 14668
Status :
Signatories : 74. Parties : 168
Text :
United Nations,  Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171 and vol. 1057, p. 407 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic Spanish text); depositary notification C.N.782.2001.TREATIES-6 of 5 October 2001 [Proposal of correction to the original of the Covenant (Chinese authentic text)] and C.N.8.2002.TREATIES-1 of 3 January 2002 [Rectification of the original of the Covenant (Chinese authentic text)].
Note :
The Covenant was opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966.
Participant
Signature
Accession(a), Succession(d), Ratification
Afghanistan
  24 Jan 1983 a
Albania
   4 Oct 1991 a
Algeria
10 Dec 1968
12 Sep 1989
Andorra
 5 Aug 2002
22 Sep 2006
Angola
  10 Jan 1992 a
Argentina
19 Feb 1968
 8 Aug 1986
Armenia
  23 Jun 1993 a
Australia
18 Dec 1972
13 Aug 1980
Austria
10 Dec 1973
10 Sep 1978
Azerbaijan
  13 Aug 1992 a
Bahamas
 4 Dec 2008
23 Dec 2008
Bahrain
  20 Sep 2006 a
Bangladesh
   6 Sep 2000 a
Barbados
   5 Jan 1973 a
Belarus
19 Mar 1968
12 Nov 1973
Belgium
10 Dec 1968
21 Apr 1983
Belize
  10 Jun 1996 a
Benin
  12 Mar 1992 a
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
  12 Aug 1982 a
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1
   1 Sep 1993 d
Botswana
 8 Sep 2000
 8 Sep 2000
Brazil
  24 Jan 1992 a
Bulgaria
 8 Oct 1968
21 Sep 1970
Burkina Faso
   4 Jan 1999 a
Burundi
   9 May 1990 a
Cabo Verde
   6 Aug 1993 a
Cambodia 2, 3
17 Oct 1980
26 May 1992 a
Cameroon
  27 Jun 1984 a
Canada
  19 May 1976 a
Central African Republic
   8 May 1981 a
Chad
   9 Jun 1995 a
Chile
16 Sep 1969
10 Feb 1972
China 4, 5, 6
 5 Oct 1998
 
Colombia
21 Dec 1966
29 Oct 1969
Comoros
25 Sep 2008
 
Congo
   5 Oct 1983 a
Costa Rica
19 Dec 1966
29 Nov 1968
Côte d'Ivoire
  26 Mar 1992 a
Croatia 1
  12 Oct 1992 d
Cuba
28 Feb 2008
 
Cyprus
19 Dec 1966
 2 Apr 1969
Czech Republic 7
  22 Feb 1993 d
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 8
  14 Sep 1981 a
Democratic Republic of the Congo
   1 Nov 1976 a
Denmark
20 Mar 1968
 6 Jan 1972
Djibouti
   5 Nov 2002 a
Dominica
  17 Jun 1993 a
Dominican Republic
   4 Jan 1978 a
Ecuador
 4 Apr 1968
 6 Mar 1969
Egypt
 4 Aug 1967
14 Jan 1982
El Salvador
21 Sep 1967
30 Nov 1979
Equatorial Guinea
  25 Sep 1987 a
Eritrea
  22 Jan 2002 a
Estonia
  21 Oct 1991 a
Ethiopia
  11 Jun 1993 a
Finland
11 Oct 1967
19 Aug 1975
France
   4 Nov 1980 a
Gabon
  21 Jan 1983 a
Gambia
  22 Mar 1979 a
Georgia
   3 May 1994 a
Germany 9, 10
 9 Oct 1968
17 Dec 1973
Ghana
 7 Sep 2000
 7 Sep 2000
Greece
   5 May 1997 a
Grenada
   6 Sep 1991 a
Guatemala
   5 May 1992 a
Guinea
28 Feb 1967
24 Jan 1978
Guinea-Bissau
12 Sep 2000
 1 Nov 2010
Guyana
22 Aug 1968
15 Feb 1977
Haiti
   6 Feb 1991 a
Honduras
19 Dec 1966
25 Aug 1997
Hungary
25 Mar 1969
17 Jan 1974
Iceland
30 Dec 1968
22 Aug 1979
India
  10 Apr 1979 a
Indonesia
  23 Feb 2006 a
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
 4 Apr 1968
24 Jun 1975
Iraq
18 Feb 1969
25 Jan 1971
Ireland
 1 Oct 1973
 8 Dec 1989
Israel
19 Dec 1966
 3 Oct 1991
Italy
18 Jan 1967
15 Sep 1978
Jamaica
19 Dec 1966
 3 Oct 1975
Japan
30 May 1978
21 Jun 1979
Jordan
30 Jun 1972
28 May 1975
Kazakhstan
 2 Dec 2003
24 Jan 2006
Kenya
   1 May 1972 a
Kuwait
  21 May 1996 a
Kyrgyzstan
   7 Oct 1994 a
Lao People's Democratic Republic
 7 Dec 2000
25 Sep 2009
Latvia
  14 Apr 1992 a
Lebanon
   3 Nov 1972 a
Lesotho
   9 Sep 1992 a
Liberia
18 Apr 1967
22 Sep 2004
Libya
  15 May 1970 a
Liechtenstein
  10 Dec 1998 a
Lithuania
  20 Nov 1991 a
Luxembourg
26 Nov 1974
18 Aug 1983
Madagascar
17 Sep 1969
21 Jun 1971
Malawi
  22 Dec 1993 a
Maldives
  19 Sep 2006 a
Mali
  16 Jul 1974 a
Malta
  13 Sep 1990 a
Mauritania
  17 Nov 2004 a
Mauritius
  12 Dec 1973 a
Mexico
  23 Mar 1981 a
Monaco
26 Jun 1997
28 Aug 1997
Mongolia
 5 Jun 1968
18 Nov 1974
Montenegro 11
  23 Oct 2006 d
Morocco
19 Jan 1977
 3 May 1979
Mozambique
  21 Jul 1993 a
Namibia
  28 Nov 1994 a
Nauru
12 Nov 2001
 
Nepal
  14 May 1991 a
Netherlands
25 Jun 1969
11 Dec 1978
New Zealand 12
12 Nov 1968
28 Dec 1978
Nicaragua
  12 Mar 1980 a
Niger
   7 Mar 1986 a
Nigeria
  29 Jul 1993 a
Norway
20 Mar 1968
13 Sep 1972
Pakistan
17 Apr 2008
23 Jun 2010
Palau
20 Sep 2011
 
Panama
27 Jul 1976
 8 Mar 1977
Papua New Guinea
  21 Jul 2008 a
Paraguay
  10 Jun 1992 a
Peru
11 Aug 1977
28 Apr 1978
Philippines
19 Dec 1966
23 Oct 1986
Poland
 2 Mar 1967
18 Mar 1977
Portugal 4
 7 Oct 1976
15 Jun 1978
Republic of Korea
  10 Apr 1990 a
Republic of Moldova
  26 Jan 1993 a
Romania
27 Jun 1968
 9 Dec 1974
Russian Federation
18 Mar 1968
16 Oct 1973
Rwanda
  16 Apr 1975 a
Samoa
  15 Feb 2008 a
San Marino
  18 Oct 1985 a
Sao Tome and Principe
31 Oct 1995
 
Senegal
 6 Jul 1970
13 Feb 1978
Serbia 1
  12 Mar 2001 d
Seychelles
   5 May 1992 a
Sierra Leone
  23 Aug 1996 a
Slovakia 7
  28 May 1993 d
Slovenia 1
   6 Jul 1992 d
Somalia
  24 Jan 1990 a
South Africa
 3 Oct 1994
10 Dec 1998
Spain
28 Sep 1976
27 Apr 1977
Sri Lanka
  11 Jun 1980 a
St. Lucia
22 Sep 2011
 
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
   9 Nov 1981 a
State of Palestine
   2 Apr 2014 a
Sudan
  18 Mar 1986 a
Suriname
  28 Dec 1976 a
Swaziland
  26 Mar 2004 a
Sweden
29 Sep 1967
 6 Dec 1971
Switzerland
  18 Jun 1992 a
Syrian Arab Republic
  21 Apr 1969 a
Tajikistan
   4 Jan 1999 a
Thailand
  29 Oct 1996 a
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1
  18 Jan 1994 d
Timor-Leste
  18 Sep 2003 a
Togo
  24 May 1984 a
Trinidad and Tobago
  21 Dec 1978 a
Tunisia
30 Apr 1968
18 Mar 1969
Turkey
15 Aug 2000
23 Sep 2003
Turkmenistan
   1 May 1997 a
Uganda
  21 Jun 1995 a
Ukraine
20 Mar 1968
12 Nov 1973
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 6
16 Sep 1968
20 May 1976
United Republic of Tanzania
  11 Jun 1976 a
United States of America
 5 Oct 1977
 8 Jun 1992
Uruguay
21 Feb 1967
 1 Apr 1970
Uzbekistan
  28 Sep 1995 a
Vanuatu
29 Nov 2007
21 Nov 2008
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
24 Jun 1969
10 May 1978
Viet Nam
  24 Sep 1982 a
Yemen
   9 Feb 1987 a
Zambia
  10 Apr 1984 a
Zimbabwe
  13 May 1991 a
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification, accession or succession.
For objections thereto and declarations recognizing the competence of the Human Rights Committee under article 41, see hereinafter.)

Afghanistan
       
[See chapter IV.3.]


Algeria 13
       
[See chapter IV.3.]


Argentina

Understanding:
       The Argentine Government states that the application of the second part of article 15 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights shall be subject to the principle laid down in article 18 of the Argentine National Constitution.

Australia 14

Reservations:
       Article 10
       "In relation to paragraph 2 (a) the principle of segregation is accepted as an objective to be achieved progressively. In relation to paragraph 2 (b) and 3 (second sentence) the obligation to segregate is accepted only to the extent that such segregation is considered by the responsible authorities to be beneficial to the juveniles or adults concerned".
       Article 14
       "Australia makes the reservation that the provision of compensation for miscarriage of justice in the circumstances contemplated in paragraph 6 of article 14 may be by administrative procedures rather than pursuant to specific legal provision."
       Article 20
       "Australia interprets the rights provided for by articles 19, 21 and 22 as consistent with article 20; accordingly, the Common wealth and the constituent States, having legislated with respect to the subject matter of the article in matters of practical concern in the interest of public order ( ordre public ), the right is reserved not to introduce any further legislative provision on these matters."

Declaration:
       "Australia has a federal constitutional system in which legislative, executive and judicial powers are shared or distributed between the Commonwealth and the constituent States. The implementation of the treaty throughout Australia will be effected by the Commonwealth, State and Territory authorities having regard to their respective constitutional powers and arrangements concerning their exercise."

Austria
       1. Article 12, paragraph 4, of the Covenant will be applied provided that it will not affect the Act of April 3, 1919, State Law Gazette No. 209, concerning the Expulsion and the Transfer of Property of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine as amended by the Act of October 30, 1919, State Law Gazette No. 501, the Federal Constitutional Act of July 30, 1925, Federal Law Gazette No. 292, and the Federal Constitutional Act of January 26, 1928, Federal Law Gazette No. 30, read in conjunction with the Federal Constitutional Act of July 4, 1963, Federal Law Gazette No. 172.
       2. Article 9 and article 14 of the Covenant will be applied provided that legal regulations governing the proceedings and measures of deprivation of liberty as provided for in the Administrative Procedure Acts and in the Financial Penal Act remain permissible within the framework of the judicial review by the Federal Administrative Court or the Federal Constitutional Court as provided by the Austrian Federal Constitution.
       3. Article 10, paragraph 3, of the Covenant will be applied provided that legal regulations allowing for juvenile prisoners to be detained together with adults under 25 years of age who give no reason for concern as to their possible detrimental influence on the juvenile prisoner remain permissible.
       4. Article 14 of the Covenant will be applied provided that the principles governing the publicity of trials as set forth in article 90 of the Federal Constitutional Law as amended in 1929 are in no way prejudiced and that
       (a) paragraph 3, sub-paragraph (d) is not in conflict with legal regulations which stipulate that an accused person who disturbs the orderly conduct of the trial or whose presence would impede the questioning of another accused person, of a witness or of an expert can be excluded from participation in the trial;
       (b) paragraph 5 is not in conflict with legal regulations which stipulate that after an acquittal or a lighter sentence passed by a court of the first instance, a higher tribunal may pronounce conviction or a heavier sentence for the same offence, while they exclude the convicted person's right to have such conviction or heavier sentence reviewed by a still higher tribunal;
       (c) paragraph 7 is not in conflict with legal regulations which allow proceedings that led up to a person's final conviction or acquittal to be reopened.
       5. Articles 19, 21 and 22 in connection with article 2 (1) of the Covenant will be applied provided that they are not in conflict with legal restrictions as provided for in article 16 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
       6. Article 26 is understood to mean that it does not exclude different treatment of Austrian nationals and aliens, as is also permissible under article 1, paragraph 2, of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

Bahamas

Reservation
       “The Government of The Bahamas recognizes and accepts the principle of compensation for wrongful imprisonment contained in paragraph 6 of article 14, but the problems of implementation are such that the right not to apply that principle is presently reserved.”

Bahrain 15

Reservation :
       "1. The Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain interprets the Provisions of Article 3, (18) and (23) as not affecting in any way the prescriptions of the Islamic Shariah.
       2. The Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain interprets the provisions of Article (9), Paragraph (5) as not detracting from its right to layout the basis and rules of obtaining the compensation mentioned in this Paragraph.
       3. The Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain interprets Article (14) Paragraph (7) as no obligation arise from it further those set out in Article (10) of the Criminal Law of Bahrain which provides:
       ‘Legal Proceedings cannot be instated against a person who has been acquitted by Foreign Courts from offenses of which he is accused or a final judgement has been delivered against him and the said person fulfilled the punishment or the punishment has been abolished by prescription.' "

Bangladesh

Reservation:
       Article 14
       “The Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh reserveapply paragraph 3 (d) of Article 14 in view of the fact, that, while the existing laws of Bangladesh provide that, in the ordinary course a person, shall be entitled to be tried in his presence, it also provides for a trial to be held in his absence if he is a fugitive offender, or is a person, who being required to appear before a court, fails to present himself or to explain the reasons for non-appearance to the satisfaction of the court.”

Declarations:
       “Article 10:
       So far as the first part of paragraph 3 of Article 10 relating to reformation and social rehabilitation of prisoners is concerned, Bangladesh does not have any facility to this effect on account of financial constraints and for lack of proper logistics support. The last part of this paragraph relating to segregation of juvenile offenders from adults is a legal obligation under Bangladesh law and is followed accordingly.
       Article 11:
       Article 11 providing that “no one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation,” is generally in conformity with the Constitutional and legal provisions in Bangladesh, except in some very exceptional circumstances, where the law provides for civil imprisonment in case of willful default in complying with a decree. The Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh will apply this article in accordance with its existing municipal law.
       Article 14:
       So far as the provision of legal assistance in paragraph 3(d) of Article 14 is concerned, a person charged with criminal offences is statutorily entitled to legal assistance if he does not have the means to procure such assistance.
       The Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, notwithstanding its acceptance of the principle of compensation for miscarriage of justice, as stipulated in Article 14, paragraph 6, is not in a position to guarantee a comprehensive implementation of this provision for the time being. However, the aggrieved has the right to realise compensation for miscarriage of justice by separate proceedings and in some cases, the court   suo moto   grants compensation to victims of miscarriage of justice. Bangladesh, however, intends to ensure full implementation of this provision in the near future.”

Barbados
       "The Government of Barbados states that it reserves the right not to apply in full, the guarantee of free legal assistance in accordance with paragraph 3 (d) of Article 14 of the Covenant, since, while accepting the principles contained in the same paragraph, the problems of implementation are such that full application cannot be guaranteed at present."
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