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STATUS AS AT : 24-04-2014 08:09:28 EDT
CHAPTER XXVI
DISARMAMENT
4 . Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
New York, 10 September 1996
Not yet in force
:
[see article XIV]. This Treaty will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all States listed in Annex 2 to this Treaty (that is to say: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Viet Nam and Zaire), but in no case earlier than two years after its opening for signature. 2. If this Treaty has not entered into force three years after the date of the anniversary of its opening for signature, the Depositary shall convene a Conference of the States that have already deposited their instruments of ratification upon the request of a majority of those States. That Conference shall examine the extent to which the requirement set out in paragraph 1 has been met and shall consider and decide by consensus what measure consistent with international law may facilitate the early entry into force of this Treaty. 3. Unless otherwise decided by the Conference referred to in paragraph 2 or other such conferences, this process shall be repeated at subsequent anniversaries of the opening for signature of this Treaty, until its entry into force. 4. All States Signatories shall be invited to attend the Conference referred to in paragraph 2 and any subsequent conferences as referred to in paragraph 3, as observers. 5. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.".
Status :
Signatories : 183. Parties : 162
Text :
Doc. A/50/1027; and C.N.429.2002.TREATIES-3 of 6 May 2002 [proposed corrections to the original text of the treaty (Arabic text)] and C.N.629.2002.TREATIES-4 of 11 June 2002 [procès-verbal of rectification (Arabic text)].
Note :
At its 50th session, the General Assembly adopted, on 10  September 1996 by resolutionA/RES/50/245 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty as contained in document A/50/1027. In the same resolution, the General Assembly requested  the Secretary-General, as depositary of the Treaty, to open it for signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York at the earliest possible date. The Treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996 and it will remain open for signature until its entry into force, in accordance with article XI.
Participant
Signature, Succession to signature(d)
Succession(d), Ratification
Afghanistan
24 Sep 2003
24 Sep 2003
Albania
27 Sep 1996
23 Apr 2003
Algeria
15 Oct 1996
11 Jul 2003
Andorra
24 Sep 1996
12 Jul 2006
Angola
27 Sep 1996
 
Antigua and Barbuda
16 Apr 1997
11 Jan 2006
Argentina
24 Sep 1996
 4 Dec 1998
Armenia
 1 Oct 1996
12 Jul 2006
Australia
24 Sep 1996
 9 Jul 1998
Austria
24 Sep 1996
13 Mar 1998
Azerbaijan
28 Jul 1997
 2 Feb 1999
Bahamas
 4 Feb 2005
30 Nov 2007
Bahrain
24 Sep 1996
12 Apr 2004
Bangladesh
24 Oct 1996
 8 Mar 2000
Barbados
14 Jan 2008
14 Jan 2008
Belarus
24 Sep 1996
13 Sep 2000
Belgium
24 Sep 1996
29 Jun 1999
Belize
14 Nov 2001
26 Mar 2004
Benin
27 Sep 1996
 6 Mar 2001
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
24 Sep 1996
 4 Oct 1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina
24 Sep 1996
26 Oct 2006
Botswana
16 Sep 2002
28 Oct 2002
Brazil
24 Sep 1996
24 Jul 1998
Brunei Darussalam
22 Jan 1997
10 Jan 2013
Bulgaria
24 Sep 1996
29 Sep 1999
Burkina Faso
27 Sep 1996
17 Apr 2002
Burundi
24 Sep 1996
24 Sep 2008
Cabo Verde
 1 Oct 1996
 1 Mar 2006
Cambodia
26 Sep 1996
10 Nov 2000
Cameroon
16 Nov 2001
 6 Feb 2006
Canada
24 Sep 1996
18 Dec 1998
Central African Republic
19 Dec 2001
26 May 2010
Chad
 8 Oct 1996
 8 Feb 2013
Chile
24 Sep 1996
12 Jul 2000
China
24 Sep 1996
 
Colombia
24 Sep 1996
29 Jan 2008
Comoros
12 Dec 1996
 
Congo
11 Feb 1997
 
Cook Islands
 5 Dec 1997
 6 Sep 2005
Costa Rica
24 Sep 1996
25 Sep 2001
Côte d'Ivoire
25 Sep 1996
11 Mar 2003
Croatia
24 Sep 1996
 2 Mar 2001
Cyprus
24 Sep 1996
18 Jul 2003
Czech Republic
12 Nov 1996
11 Sep 1997
Democratic Republic of the Congo
 4 Oct 1996
28 Sep 2004
Denmark
24 Sep 1996
21 Dec 1998
Djibouti
21 Oct 1996
15 Jul 2005
Dominican Republic
 3 Oct 1996
 4 Sep 2007
Ecuador
24 Sep 1996
12 Nov 2001
Egypt
14 Oct 1996
 
El Salvador
24 Sep 1996
11 Sep 1998
Equatorial Guinea
 9 Oct 1996
 
Eritrea
11 Nov 2003
11 Nov 2003
Estonia
20 Nov 1996
13 Aug 1999
Ethiopia
25 Sep 1996
 8 Aug 2006
Fiji
24 Sep 1996
10 Oct 1996
Finland
24 Sep 1996
15 Jan 1999
France
24 Sep 1996
 6 Apr 1998
Gabon
 7 Oct 1996
20 Sep 2000
Gambia
 9 Apr 2003
 
Georgia
24 Sep 1996
27 Sep 2002
Germany
24 Sep 1996
20 Aug 1998
Ghana
 3 Oct 1996
14 Jun 2011
Greece
24 Sep 1996
21 Apr 1999
Grenada
10 Oct 1996
19 Aug 1998
Guatemala
20 Sep 1999
12 Jan 2012
Guinea
 3 Oct 1996
22 Sep 2011
Guinea-Bissau
11 Apr 1997
24 Sep 2013
Guyana
 7 Sep 2000
 7 Mar 2001
Haiti
24 Sep 1996
 1 Dec 2005
Holy See
24 Sep 1996
18 Jul 2001
Honduras
25 Sep 1996
30 Oct 2003
Hungary
25 Sep 1996
13 Jul 1999
Iceland
24 Sep 1996
26 Jun 2000
Indonesia
24 Sep 1996
 6 Feb 2012
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
24 Sep 1996
 
Iraq
19 Aug 2008
26 Sep 2013
Ireland
24 Sep 1996
15 Jul 1999
Israel
25 Sep 1996
 
Italy
24 Sep 1996
 1 Feb 1999
Jamaica
11 Nov 1996
13 Nov 2001
Japan
24 Sep 1996
 8 Jul 1997
Jordan
26 Sep 1996
25 Aug 1998
Kazakhstan
30 Sep 1996
14 May 2002
Kenya
14 Nov 1996
30 Nov 2000
Kiribati
 7 Sep 2000
 7 Sep 2000
Kuwait
24 Sep 1996
 6 May 2003
Kyrgyzstan
 8 Oct 1996
 2 Oct 2003
Lao People's Democratic Republic
30 Jul 1997
 5 Oct 2000
Latvia
24 Sep 1996
20 Nov 2001
Lebanon
16 Sep 2005
21 Nov 2008
Lesotho
30 Sep 1996
14 Sep 1999
Liberia
 1 Oct 1996
17 Aug 2009
Libya
13 Nov 2001
 6 Jan 2004
Liechtenstein
27 Sep 1996
21 Sep 2004
Lithuania
 7 Oct 1996
 7 Feb 2000
Luxembourg
24 Sep 1996
26 May 1999
Madagascar
 9 Oct 1996
15 Sep 2005
Malawi
 9 Oct 1996
21 Nov 2008
Malaysia
23 Jul 1998
17 Jan 2008
Maldives
 1 Oct 1997
 7 Sep 2000
Mali
18 Feb 1997
 4 Aug 1999
Malta
24 Sep 1996
23 Jul 2001
Marshall Islands
24 Sep 1996
28 Oct 2009
Mauritania
24 Sep 1996
30 Apr 2003
Mexico
24 Sep 1996
 5 Oct 1999
Micronesia (Federated States of)
24 Sep 1996
25 Jul 1997
Monaco
 1 Oct 1996
18 Dec 1998
Mongolia
 1 Oct 1996
 8 Aug 1997
Montenegro 1
23 Oct 2006 d
23 Oct 2006 d
Morocco
24 Sep 1996
17 Apr 2000
Mozambique
26 Sep 1996
 4 Nov 2008
Myanmar
25 Nov 1996
 
Namibia
24 Sep 1996
29 Jun 2001
Nauru
 8 Sep 2000
12 Nov 2001
Nepal
 8 Oct 1996
 
Netherlands 2
24 Sep 1996
23 Mar 1999
New Zealand
27 Sep 1996
19 Mar 1999
Nicaragua
24 Sep 1996
 5 Dec 2000
Niger
 3 Oct 1996
 9 Sep 2002
Nigeria
 8 Sep 2000
27 Sep 2001
Niue
 9 Apr 2012
 4 Mar 2014
Norway
24 Sep 1996
15 Jul 1999
Oman
23 Sep 1999
13 Jun 2003
Palau
12 Aug 2003
 1 Aug 2007
Panama
24 Sep 1996
23 Mar 1999
Papua New Guinea
25 Sep 1996
 
Paraguay
25 Sep 1996
 4 Oct 2001
Peru
25 Sep 1996
12 Nov 1997
Philippines
24 Sep 1996
23 Feb 2001
Poland
24 Sep 1996
25 May 1999
Portugal
24 Sep 1996
26 Jun 2000
Qatar
24 Sep 1996
 3 Mar 1997
Republic of Korea
24 Sep 1996
24 Sep 1999
Republic of Moldova
24 Sep 1997
16 Jan 2007
Romania
24 Sep 1996
 5 Oct 1999
Russian Federation
24 Sep 1996
30 Jun 2000
Rwanda
30 Nov 2004
30 Nov 2004
Samoa
 9 Oct 1996
27 Sep 2002
San Marino
 7 Oct 1996
12 Mar 2002
Sao Tome and Principe
26 Sep 1996
 
Senegal
26 Sep 1996
 9 Jun 1999
Serbia
 8 Jun 2001
19 May 2004
Seychelles
24 Sep 1996
13 Apr 2004
Sierra Leone
 8 Sep 2000
17 Sep 2001
Singapore
14 Jan 1999
10 Nov 2001
Slovakia
30 Sep 1996
 3 Mar 1998
Slovenia
24 Sep 1996
31 Aug 1999
Solomon Islands
 3 Oct 1996
 
South Africa
24 Sep 1996
30 Mar 1999
Spain
24 Sep 1996
31 Jul 1998
Sri Lanka
24 Oct 1996
 
St. Kitts and Nevis
23 Mar 2004
27 Apr 2005
St. Lucia
 4 Oct 1996
 5 Apr 2001
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
 2 Jul 2009
23 Sep 2009
Sudan
10 Jun 2004
10 Jun 2004
Suriname
14 Jan 1997
 7 Feb 2006
Swaziland
24 Sep 1996
 
Sweden
24 Sep 1996
 2 Dec 1998
Switzerland
24 Sep 1996
 1 Oct 1999
Tajikistan
 7 Oct 1996
10 Jun 1998
Thailand
12 Nov 1996
 
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
29 Oct 1998
14 Mar 2000
Timor-Leste
26 Sep 2008
 
Togo
 2 Oct 1996
 2 Jul 2004
Trinidad and Tobago
 8 Oct 2009
26 May 2010
Tunisia
16 Oct 1996
23 Sep 2004
Turkey
24 Sep 1996
16 Feb 2000
Turkmenistan
24 Sep 1996
20 Feb 1998
Uganda
 7 Nov 1996
14 Mar 2001
Ukraine
27 Sep 1996
23 Feb 2001
United Arab Emirates
25 Sep 1996
18 Sep 2000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
24 Sep 1996
 6 Apr 1998
United Republic of Tanzania
30 Sep 2004
30 Sep 2004
United States of America
24 Sep 1996
 
Uruguay
24 Sep 1996
21 Sep 2001
Uzbekistan
 3 Oct 1996
29 May 1997
Vanuatu
24 Sep 1996
16 Sep 2005
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
 3 Oct 1996
13 May 2002
Viet Nam
24 Sep 1996
10 Mar 2006
Yemen
30 Sep 1996
 
Zambia
 3 Dec 1996
23 Feb 2006
Zimbabwe
13 Oct 1999
 
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification or succession.)
China

Declarations made upon signature:
       1. China has all along stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons and the realization of a nuclear-weapon-free world. It is in favor of a comprehensive ban on nuclear weapon test explosions in the process towards this objective. China is deeply convinced that the CTBT will facilitate nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, China supports the conclusion, through negotiation, of a fair, reasonable and verifiable treaty with universal adherence and unlimited duration and is ready to take active measures to promote its ratification and entry into force.
       2. Meanwhile, the Chinese Government solemnly makes the following appeals:
       (1) Major nuclear weapon states should abandon their policy of nuclear deterrence. States with huge nuclear arsenals should continue to drastically reduce their nuclear stockpiles.
       (2) All countries that have deployed nuclear weapons on foreign soil should withdraw all of them to their own land. All nuclear weapon states should undertake not to be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, commit themselves unconditionally to the non-use or threat of use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states or nuclear weapon-free zones, and conclude, at an early date, international legal instruments to this effect.
       (3) All nuclear weapon states should pledge their support to proposals for the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, respect their status as such and undertake corresponding obligations.
       (4) No country should develop or deploy space weapon systems or missile defence systems undermining strategic security and stability.
       (5) An international convention on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons should be concluded through negotiations.
       3. The Chinese Government endorses the application of verification measures consistent with the provisions of the CTBT to ensure its faithful implementation and at the same time it firmly opposes the abuse of verification rights by any country, including the use of espionage or human intelligence, to infringe upon the sovereignty of China and impair its legitimate security interests in violation of universally recognized principles of international law.
       4 . In the present day world where huge nuclear arsenals and nuclear deterrence policy based on the first use of nuclear weapons still exist, the supreme national interests of China demand that it ensure the safety, reliability and effectiveness of its nuclear weapons before the goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons is achieved.
       5. The Chinese Government and people are ready to continue to work together with governments and peoples of other countries for an early realization of the lofty goal of the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons.

Colombia
       Declaration:
       The Government of Colombia declares that the financial obligations arising from the present instrument shall not become payable until the Treaty has entered into force and shall not have retroactive effect.
Germany

Declaration made upon signature:
       It is the understanding of the German Government that nothing in this Treaty shall ever be interpreted or applied in such a way as to prejudice or prevent research into and development of controlled thermonuclear fusion and its economic use.

Guatemala

Declaration:
       The Government of Guatemala declares that the financial obligations arising from the present Treaty will only become payable as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty and shall not have retroactive effect.

Holy See

Declaration upon signature:
       "The Holy See is convinced that in the sphere of nuclear weapons, the banning of tests and of the further development of these weapons, disarmament and non-proliferation are closely linked and must be achieved as quickly as possible under effective international controls.
       Furthermore, the Holy See understands that these are steps towards a general and total disarmament which the international community as a whole should accomplish without delay."

Declaration upon ratification:
       "The Holy See, in ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 and signed by the Holy See on 24 September of the same year, wishes to repeat what was said when it added its signature: "The Holy See is convinced that in the sphere of nuclear weapons, the banning of tests and of the further development of these weapons, disarmament and non-proliferation are closely linked and must be achieved as quickly as possible under effective international controls".
       In conformity with the nature and particular condition of Vatican City State, the Holy See, by this ratification, seeks to advance the genuine promotion of a culture of peace based upon the primacy of law and of respect for human life.  At the beginning of the third millennium, the implementation of a system of comprehensive and complete disarmament, capable of fostering a climate of trust, cooperation and respect between all States, represents an indispensable aspect of the concrete realization of a culture of life and peace.
       In lending moral support to the CTBT through this solemn act of ratification, the Holy See encourages the whole International Community, which is aware of the various challenges standing in the way of nuclear disarmament, to intensify its efforts to ensure the implementation of the said Treaty."

Iran (Islamic Republic of) 3

Declarations upon signature:
       "1. The Islamic Republic of Iran considers that the Treaty does not meet nuclear disarmament criteria as originally intended. We had not perceived a CTBT only as non-proliferation instrument. The Treaty must have terminated fully and comprehensive further development of nuclear weapons. However, the Treaty bans explosions, thus limiting such development only in certain aspects, while leaving others avenues wide open. We see no other way for the CTBT to be meaningful, however, unless it is considered as a step towards a phased program for nuclear disarmament with specific time frames through negotiations on a consecutive series of subsequent treaties.
       2. On National Technical Means, based on the deliberation that took place on the issues in the relevant Ad Hoc Committee of the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, we interpret the text as according a complementary role to them and reiterate that they should be phased out with further development of the International Monitoring System. National Technical Means should not be interpreted to include information received from espionage and human intelligence.
       3. The inclusion of Israel in the MESA grouping constitutes a politically-motivated aberration from UN practice and is thus objectionable. We express our strong reservation on the matter and believe that it will impede the implementation of the Treaty, as the confrontation of the States in this regional group would make it tremendously difficult for the Executive Council to form. The Conference of the States Parties would eventually be compelled to find a way to redress this problem."

Lebanon

3 October 2005


Declaration:
       "We express our reservation on the inclusion of Israel in MESA grouping, which constitutes an aberration from UN practice and it will impede the implementation of the treaty.
       We believe strongly that the confrontation of the states in this regional group would make it tremendously difficult to form the Executive Council.  The Conference of the States Parties would be compelled to find a way to redress this problem."

End Note
1.See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.
2.On behalf of the Kindom in Europe, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.
3.On 29 January 1997, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Israel the following communication with regard to the declaration contained in paragraph 3:

"Israel considers that Iran's declaration on this matter has no legal basis and is entirely motivated by political reasons extraneous to the CTBT.

The Iranian declaration attempts to undermine the implementation of the treaty and is incompatible with both the Treaty and its spirit, as well as with the U.N. Charter principle of sovereign equality of all states.

Israel, by geography, is part of the Middle-East region, and no objection will change this.

Israel calls upon other signatories of the CTBT to express their rejection of the Iranian reservation to Israel's inclusion in the MESA Geographic region, as well as the threat contained therein."