CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeNew York, 9 May 199221 March 1994, in accordance with article 23(1).21 March 1994, No. 30822Signatories165Parties1971United Nations, <i>Treaty Series </i>, vol. 1771, p. 107; and depositary notifications C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993 (procès-verbal of rectification of the original texts of the Convention); C.N.436.1993.TREATIES-12 of 15 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.148.1993.TREATIES-4 of 12 July 1993); C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic French text); C.N.462.1993.TREATIES-13 of 30 December 1993 (corrigendum to C.N.247.1993.TREATIES-6 of 24 November 1993); C.N.544.1997.TREATIES-6 of 13 February 1997 (amendment to the list in annex I to the Convention); and C.N.1478.2001.TREATIES-2 of 28 December 2001 (amendment to the list in annex II to the Convention); C.N.237.2010.TREATIES-2 of 26 April 2010 (adoption of amendment to the list in the Annex I to the Convention); C.N.355.2012.TREATIES-XXVII.7 of 9 July 2012 (adoption of amendment to Annex I to the Convention) and C.N.81.2013.TREATIES-XXVII.7 of 14 January 2013 (entry into force of amendment to Annex I to the Convention).The Convention was agreed upon and adopted by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, during its Fifth session, second part, held at New York from 30 April to 9 May 1992. In accordance with its article 20, the Convention was open for signature by States Members of the United Nations or of any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations, at Rio de Janeiro during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, from 4 to 14 June 1992, and remained thereafter open at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 19 June 1993.
ParticipantSignatureApproval(AA), Acceptance(A), Accession(a), Succession(d), RatificationAfghanistan12 Jun 1992 19 Sep 2002 Albania 3 Oct 1994 aAlgeria13 Jun 1992 9 Jun 1993 Andorra 2 Mar 2011 aAngola14 Jun 1992 17 May 2000 Antigua and Barbuda 4 Jun 1992 2 Feb 1993 Argentina12 Jun 1992 11 Mar 1994 Armenia13 Jun 1992 14 May 1993 AAustralia 4 Jun 1992 30 Dec 1992 Austria 8 Jun 1992 28 Feb 1994 Azerbaijan12 Jun 1992 16 May 1995 Bahamas12 Jun 1992 29 Mar 1994 Bahrain 8 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994 Bangladesh 9 Jun 1992 15 Apr 1994 Barbados12 Jun 1992 23 Mar 1994 Belarus11 Jun 1992 11 May 2000 AABelgium 4 Jun 1992 16 Jan 1996 Belize13 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1994 Benin13 Jun 1992 30 Jun 1994 Bhutan11 Jun 1992 25 Aug 1995 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)10 Jun 1992 3 Oct 1994 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7 Sep 2000 aBotswana12 Jun 1992 27 Jan 1994 Brazil 4 Jun 1992 28 Feb 1994 Brunei Darussalam 7 Aug 2007 aBulgaria 5 Jun 1992 12 May 1995 Burkina Faso12 Jun 1992 2 Sep 1993 Burundi11 Jun 1992 6 Jan 1997 Cabo Verde12 Jun 1992 29 Mar 1995 Cambodia18 Dec 1995 aCameroon14 Jun 1992 19 Oct 1994 Canada12 Jun 1992 4 Dec 1992 Central African Republic13 Jun 1992 10 Mar 1995 Chad12 Jun 1992 7 Jun 1994 Chile13 Jun 1992 22 Dec 1994 China<superscript>2,3</superscript>11 Jun 1992 5 Jan 1993 Colombia13 Jun 1992 22 Mar 1995 Comoros11 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1994 Congo12 Jun 1992 14 Oct 1996 Cook Islands12 Jun 1992 20 Apr 1993 Costa Rica13 Jun 1992 26 Aug 1994 Côte d'Ivoire10 Jun 1992 29 Nov 1994 Croatia11 Jun 1992 8 Apr 1996 ACuba13 Jun 1992 5 Jan 1994 Cyprus12 Jun 1992 15 Oct 1997 Czech Republic18 Jun 1993 7 Oct 1993 AADemocratic People's Republic of Korea11 Jun 1992 5 Dec 1994 AADemocratic Republic of the Congo11 Jun 1992 9 Jan 1995 Denmark 9 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993 Djibouti12 Jun 1992 27 Aug 1995 Dominica21 Jun 1993 aDominican Republic12 Jun 1992 7 Oct 1998 Ecuador 9 Jun 1992 23 Feb 1993 Egypt 9 Jun 1992 5 Dec 1994 El Salvador13 Jun 1992 4 Dec 1995 Equatorial Guinea16 Aug 2000 aEritrea24 Apr 1995 aEstonia12 Jun 1992 27 Jul 1994 Eswatini12 Jun 1992 7 Oct 1996 Ethiopia10 Jun 1992 5 Apr 1994 European Union13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993 AAFiji 9 Oct 1992 25 Feb 1993 Finland 4 Jun 1992 3 May 1994 AFrance13 Jun 1992 25 Mar 1994 Gabon12 Jun 1992 21 Jan 1998 Gambia12 Jun 1992 10 Jun 1994 Georgia29 Jul 1994 aGermany12 Jun 1992 9 Dec 1993 Ghana12 Jun 1992 6 Sep 1995 Greece12 Jun 1992 4 Aug 1994 Grenada 3 Dec 1992 11 Aug 1994 Guatemala13 Jun 1992 15 Dec 1995 Guinea12 Jun 1992 7 May 1993 Guinea-Bissau12 Jun 1992 27 Oct 1995 Guyana13 Jun 1992 29 Aug 1994 Haiti13 Jun 1992 25 Sep 1996 Honduras13 Jun 1992 19 Oct 1995 Hungary13 Jun 1992 24 Feb 1994 Iceland 4 Jun 1992 16 Jun 1993 India10 Jun 1992 1 Nov 1993 Indonesia 5 Jun 1992 23 Aug 1994 Iran (Islamic Republic of)14 Jun 1992 18 Jul 1996 Iraq28 Jul 2009 aIreland13 Jun 1992 20 Apr 1994 Israel 4 Jun 1992 4 Jun 1996 Italy 5 Jun 1992 15 Apr 1994 Jamaica12 Jun 1992 6 Jan 1995 Japan13 Jun 1992 28 May 1993 AJordan11 Jun 1992 12 Nov 1993 Kazakhstan 8 Jun 1992 17 May 1995 Kenya12 Jun 1992 30 Aug 1994 Kiribati13 Jun 1992 7 Feb 1995 Kuwait28 Dec 1994 aKyrgyzstan25 May 2000 aLao People's Democratic Republic 4 Jan 1995 aLatvia11 Jun 1992 23 Mar 1995 Lebanon12 Jun 1992 15 Dec 1994 Lesotho11 Jun 1992 7 Feb 1995 Liberia12 Jun 1992 5 Nov 2002 Libya29 Jun 1992 14 Jun 1999 Liechtenstein 4 Jun 1992 22 Jun 1994 Lithuania11 Jun 1992 24 Mar 1995 Luxembourg 9 Jun 1992 9 May 1994 Madagascar10 Jun 1992 2 Jun 1999 Malawi10 Jun 1992 21 Apr 1994 Malaysia 9 Jun 1993 13 Jul 1994 Maldives12 Jun 1992 9 Nov 1992 Mali30 Sep 1992 28 Dec 1994 Malta12 Jun 1992 17 Mar 1994 Marshall Islands12 Jun 1992 8 Oct 1992 Mauritania12 Jun 1992 20 Jan 1994 Mauritius10 Jun 1992 4 Sep 1992 Mexico13 Jun 1992 11 Mar 1993 Micronesia (Federated States of)12 Jun 1992 18 Nov 1993 Monaco11 Jun 1992 20 Nov 1992 Mongolia12 Jun 1992 30 Sep 1993 Montenegro<superscript>4</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dMorocco13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1995 Mozambique12 Jun 1992 25 Aug 1995 Myanmar11 Jun 1992 25 Nov 1994 Namibia12 Jun 1992 16 May 1995 Nauru 8 Jun 1992 11 Nov 1993 Nepal12 Jun 1992 2 May 1994 Netherlands<superscript>5</superscript> 4 Jun 1992 20 Dec 1993 ANew Zealand<superscript>6</superscript> 4 Jun 1992 16 Sep 1993 Nicaragua13 Jun 1992 31 Oct 1995 Niger11 Jun 1992 25 Jul 1995 Nigeria13 Jun 1992 29 Aug 1994 Niue28 Feb 1996 aNorth Macedonia28 Jan 1998 aNorway 4 Jun 1992 9 Jul 1993 Oman11 Jun 1992 8 Feb 1995 Pakistan13 Jun 1992 1 Jun 1994 Palau10 Dec 1999 aPanama18 Mar 1993 23 May 1995 Papua New Guinea13 Jun 1992 16 Mar 1993 Paraguay12 Jun 1992 24 Feb 1994 Peru12 Jun 1992 7 Jun 1993 Philippines12 Jun 1992 2 Aug 1994 Poland 5 Jun 1992 28 Jul 1994 Portugal<superscript>3</superscript>13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993 Qatar18 Apr 1996 aRepublic of Korea13 Jun 1992 14 Dec 1993 Republic of Moldova12 Jun 1992 9 Jun 1995 Romania 5 Jun 1992 8 Jun 1994 Russian Federation13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994 Rwanda10 Jun 1992 18 Aug 1998 Samoa12 Jun 1992 29 Nov 1994 San Marino10 Jun 1992 28 Oct 1994 Sao Tome and Principe12 Jun 1992 29 Sep 1999 Saudi Arabia28 Dec 1994 aSenegal13 Jun 1992 17 Oct 1994 Serbia12 Mar 2001 aSeychelles10 Jun 1992 22 Sep 1992 Sierra Leone11 Feb 1993 22 Jun 1995 Singapore13 Jun 1992 29 May 1997 Slovakia19 May 1993 25 Aug 1994 AASlovenia13 Jun 1992 1 Dec 1995 Solomon Islands13 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994 Somalia11 Sep 2009 aSouth Africa15 Jun 1993 29 Aug 1997 South Sudan17 Feb 2014 aSpain13 Jun 1992 21 Dec 1993 Sri Lanka10 Jun 1992 23 Nov 1993 St. Kitts and Nevis12 Jun 1992 7 Jan 1993 St. Lucia14 Jun 1993 14 Jun 1993 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2 Dec 1996 aState of Palestine18 Dec 2015 aSudan 9 Jun 1992 19 Nov 1993 Suriname13 Jun 1992 14 Oct 1997 Sweden 8 Jun 1992 23 Jun 1993 Switzerland12 Jun 1992 10 Dec 1993 Syrian Arab Republic 4 Jan 1996 aTajikistan 7 Jan 1998 aThailand12 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994 Timor-Leste10 Oct 2006 aTogo12 Jun 1992 8 Mar 1995 ATonga20 Jul 1998 aTrinidad and Tobago11 Jun 1992 24 Jun 1994 Tunisia13 Jun 1992 15 Jul 1993 Turkey24 Feb 2004 aTurkmenistan 5 Jun 1995 aTuvalu 8 Jun 1992 26 Oct 1993 Uganda13 Jun 1992 8 Sep 1993 Ukraine11 Jun 1992 13 May 1997 United Arab Emirates29 Dec 1995 aUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>7,8</superscript>12 Jun 1992 8 Dec 1993 United Republic of Tanzania12 Jun 1992 17 Apr 1996 United States of America12 Jun 1992 15 Oct 1992 Uruguay 4 Jun 1992 18 Aug 1994 Uzbekistan20 Jun 1993 aVanuatu 9 Jun 1992 25 Mar 1993 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)12 Jun 1992 28 Dec 1994 Viet Nam11 Jun 1992 16 Nov 1994 Yemen12 Jun 1992 21 Feb 1996 Zambia11 Jun 1992 28 May 1993 Zimbabwe12 Jun 1992 3 Nov 1992
Declarations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, accession, acceptance, approval or succession.)BulgariaDeclaration:"The Republic of Bulgaria declares that in accordance with article 4, paragraph 6, and with respect to paragraph 2 ( <i>b </i>) of the said article, it accepts as a basis of the anthropogenic emissions in Bulgaria of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, the 1988 levels of the said emissions in the country and not their 1990 levels, keeping records of and comparing the emission rates during the subsequent years."CroatiaDeclaration :"The Republic of Croatia declares that it intends to be bound by the provisions of the Annex 1, as a country undergoing the process of transition to a market economy."CubaDeclaration:With reference to article 14 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Government of the Republic of Cuba declares that, insofar as concerns the Republic of Cuba, any dispute that may arise between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention shall be settled through negotiation through the diplomatic channel.European UnionUpon signature:Declaration:"The European Economic Community and its Member States declare, for the purposes of clarity, that the inclusion of the European Community as well as its Member States in the lists in the Annexes to the Convention is without prejudice to the division of competence and responsibilities between the Community and its Member States, which is to be declared in accordance with article 21 (3) of the Convention."Upon approval:Declaration:"The European Economic Community and its Member States declare that the commitment to limit anthropogenic CO 2 emissions set out in article 4(2) of the Convention will be fulfilled in the Community as a whole through action by the Community and its Member States, within the respective com- petence of each.In this perspective, the Community and its Member States reaffirm the objectives set out in the Council conclusions of 29 October 1990, and in particular the objective of stabilization of CO 2 emission by 2000 and 1990 level in the Community as a whole.The European Economic Community and its Member States are elaborating a coherent strategy in order to attain this objective."FijiUpon signature:Declaration:"The Government of Fiji declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall, in no way, constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."HungaryDeclaration:"The Government of the Republic of Hungary attributes great significance to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and it reiterates its position in accordance with the provisions of article 4.6 of the Convention on certain degree of flexibility that the average level of anthropogenic carbon-dioxide emissions for the period of 1985-1987 will be considered as reference level in context of the commitments under article 4.2 of the Convention. This understanding is closely related to the `process of transition' as it is given in article 4.6 of the Convention. The Government of the Republic of Hungary declares that it will do all efforts to contribute to the objective of the Convention."KiribatiUpon signature:Declaration:"The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that signature and /or ratification of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."MonacoDeclaration:In accordance with sub-paragraph g of article 4.2 of the Convention, the Principality of Monaco declares that it intends to be bound by the provisions of sub-paragraphs a and b of said article.NauruUpon signature:Declaration:"The Government of Nauru declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law."Netherlands<right>17 February 2010</right>Declaration:“The Kingdom of the Netherlands declares, in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 14 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, that it accepts both means of dispute settlement referred to in that paragraph as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting one or both means of dispute settlement.”Papua New GuineaDeclaration:"The Government of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea declares its understanding that ratification of the Con- vention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under International Law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of Climate Change as derogating from the prin- ciples of general International Law."Solomon IslandsDeclaration:"In pursuance of article 14 (2) of the said Convention [the Government of the Solomon Islands] shall recognise as com-pulsory, arbitration, in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration."TuvaluUpon signature:Declaration:"The Government of Tuvalu declares its understanding that signature of the Convention shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provisions in the Convention can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law." 12Notifications made under article 4 (2) (g)<superscript>9</superscript>ParticipantDate of receipt of the notification:Czech Republic27 Nov 1995Kazakhstan23 Mar 2000Monaco20 Nov 1992Slovakia23 Feb 1996Slovenia9 Jun 1998
1For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol] , any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.2By a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following: "In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People's Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise."3On 28 June 1999, the Government of Portugal informed the Secretary-General the the Convention would also apply to Macao.Subsequently, the Secretary-General received communications concerning the status of Macao from Portugal and China (see note 1 under “Portugal” and note 3 under “China” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.) Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Macao, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention will also apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region.4See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.5For the Kingdom in Europe.6Upon ratification, New Zealand had notified the Secretary-General of a territorial exclusion with respect to Tokealau. On 13 November 2017, New Zealand notified that it extends the application of the Convention to Tokelau. See C.N.704.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.7 of 13 November 2017.7In respect of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man. On 4 April 2006: in respect of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas).8By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following: The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 9 May 1992 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007. The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_2065-Eng.pdf">2065 (XX)</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_31_60-Eng.pdf">3160 (XXVIII)</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_31_49-Eng.pdf">31/49</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_37_9-Eng.pdf">37/9</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_38_12-Eng.pdf">38/12</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_39_6-Eng.pdf">39/6</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_40_21-Eng.pdf">40/21</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_41_40-Eng.pdf">41/40</a>, <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_42_19-Eng.pdf">42/19</a> and <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_43_25-Eng.pdf">43/25</a>, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.9States having, in accordance with article 4 (2)(g), notified the Secretary-General of their intention to be bound by article 4 (2)(a) and (b) of the Convention.