CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7dParis AgreementParis, 12 December 20154 November 2016, in accordance with article 21(1) . The Agreement enters into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55 per cent of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.4 November 2016, No. 54113Signatories195Parties191C.N.63.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 16 February 2016 (Opening for signature) and C.N.92.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 17 March 2016 (Issuance of Certified True Copies).The Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris from 30 November to 13 December 2015. In accordance with its article 20, the Agreement shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 until 21 April 2017 by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a)Afghanistan22 Apr 2016 15 Feb 2017 Albania22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Algeria22 Apr 2016 20 Oct 2016 Andorra22 Apr 2016 24 Mar 2017 Angola22 Apr 2016 16 Nov 2020 Antigua and Barbuda22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Argentina22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Armenia20 Sep 2016 23 Mar 2017 Australia22 Apr 2016 9 Nov 2016 Austria22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Azerbaijan22 Apr 2016 9 Jan 2017 Bahamas22 Apr 2016 22 Aug 2016 Bahrain22 Apr 2016 23 Dec 2016 Bangladesh22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Barbados22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Belarus22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 ABelgium22 Apr 2016 6 Apr 2017 Belize22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Benin22 Apr 2016 31 Oct 2016 Bhutan22 Apr 2016 19 Sep 2017 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Bosnia and Herzegovina22 Apr 2016 16 Mar 2017 Botswana22 Apr 2016 11 Nov 2016 Brazil22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Brunei Darussalam22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Bulgaria22 Apr 2016 29 Nov 2016 Burkina Faso22 Apr 2016 11 Nov 2016 Burundi22 Apr 2016 17 Jan 2018 Cabo Verde22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2017 Cambodia22 Apr 2016 6 Feb 2017 Cameroon22 Apr 2016 29 Jul 2016 Canada22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Central African Republic22 Apr 2016 11 Oct 2016 Chad22 Apr 2016 12 Jan 2017 Chile20 Sep 2016 10 Feb 2017 China22 Apr 2016 3 Sep 2016 Colombia22 Apr 2016 12 Jul 2018 Comoros22 Apr 2016 23 Nov 2016 Congo22 Apr 2016 21 Apr 2017 Cook Islands24 Jun 2016 1 Sep 2016 Costa Rica22 Apr 2016 13 Oct 2016 Côte d'Ivoire22 Apr 2016 25 Oct 2016 Croatia22 Apr 2016 24 May 2017 Cuba22 Apr 2016 28 Dec 2016 Cyprus22 Apr 2016 4 Jan 2017 Czech Republic22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2017 Democratic People's Republic of Korea22 Apr 2016 1 Aug 2016 Democratic Republic of the Congo22 Apr 2016 13 Dec 2017 Denmark<superscript>1</superscript>22 Apr 2016 1 Nov 2016 AADjibouti22 Apr 2016 11 Nov 2016 Dominica22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Dominican Republic22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2017 Ecuador26 Jul 2016 20 Sep 2017 Egypt22 Apr 2016 29 Jun 2017 El Salvador22 Apr 2016 27 Mar 2017 Equatorial Guinea22 Apr 2016 30 Oct 2018 Eritrea22 Apr 2016 Estonia22 Apr 2016 4 Nov 2016 Eswatini22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Ethiopia22 Apr 2016 9 Mar 2017 European Union22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Fiji22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Finland22 Apr 2016 14 Nov 2016 France22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Gabon22 Apr 2016 2 Nov 2016 Gambia26 Apr 2016 7 Nov 2016 Georgia22 Apr 2016 8 May 2017 AAGermany22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Ghana22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Greece22 Apr 2016 14 Oct 2016 Grenada22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Guatemala22 Apr 2016 25 Jan 2017 Guinea22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Guinea-Bissau22 Apr 2016 22 Oct 2018 Guyana22 Apr 2016 20 May 2016 Haiti22 Apr 2016 31 Jul 2017 Honduras22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Hungary22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Iceland22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 AIndia22 Apr 2016 2 Oct 2016 Indonesia22 Apr 2016 31 Oct 2016 Iran (Islamic Republic of)22 Apr 2016 Iraq 8 Dec 2016 Ireland22 Apr 2016 4 Nov 2016 Israel22 Apr 2016 22 Nov 2016 Italy22 Apr 2016 11 Nov 2016 Jamaica22 Apr 2016 10 Apr 2017 Japan22 Apr 2016 8 Nov 2016 AJordan22 Apr 2016 4 Nov 2016 Kazakhstan 2 Aug 2016 6 Dec 2016 Kenya22 Apr 2016 28 Dec 2016 Kiribati22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Kuwait22 Apr 2016 23 Apr 2018 Kyrgyzstan21 Sep 2016 18 Feb 2020 Lao People's Democratic Republic22 Apr 2016 7 Sep 2016 Latvia22 Apr 2016 16 Mar 2017 Lebanon22 Apr 2016 5 Feb 2020 Lesotho22 Apr 2016 20 Jan 2017 Liberia22 Apr 2016 27 Aug 2018 Libya22 Apr 2016 Liechtenstein22 Apr 2016 20 Sep 2017 Lithuania22 Apr 2016 2 Feb 2017 Luxembourg22 Apr 2016 4 Nov 2016 Madagascar22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Malawi20 Sep 2016 29 Jun 2017 Malaysia22 Apr 2016 16 Nov 2016 Maldives22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Mali22 Apr 2016 23 Sep 2016 Malta22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Marshall Islands22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Mauritania22 Apr 2016 27 Feb 2017 Mauritius22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Mexico22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Micronesia (Federated States of)22 Apr 2016 15 Sep 2016 Monaco22 Apr 2016 24 Oct 2016 Mongolia22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Montenegro22 Apr 2016 20 Dec 2017 Morocco22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Mozambique22 Apr 2016 4 Jun 2018 Myanmar22 Apr 2016 19 Sep 2017 Namibia22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Nauru22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Nepal22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Netherlands<superscript>2</superscript>22 Apr 2016 28 Jul 2017 ANew Zealand<superscript>3</superscript>22 Apr 2016 4 Oct 2016 Nicaragua23 Oct 2017 aNiger22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Nigeria22 Sep 2016 16 May 2017 Niue28 Oct 2016 28 Oct 2016 North Macedonia22 Apr 2016 9 Jan 2018 Norway22 Apr 2016 20 Jun 2016 Oman22 Apr 2016 22 May 2019 Pakistan22 Apr 2016 10 Nov 2016 Palau22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Panama22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Papua New Guinea22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Paraguay22 Apr 2016 14 Oct 2016 Peru22 Apr 2016 25 Jul 2016 Philippines22 Apr 2016 23 Mar 2017 Poland22 Apr 2016 7 Oct 2016 Portugal22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Qatar22 Apr 2016 23 Jun 2017 Republic of Korea22 Apr 2016 3 Nov 2016 Republic of Moldova21 Sep 2016 20 Jun 2017 Romania22 Apr 2016 1 Jun 2017 Russian Federation22 Apr 2016 7 Oct 2019 ARwanda22 Apr 2016 6 Oct 2016 Samoa22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 San Marino22 Apr 2016 26 Sep 2018 Sao Tome and Principe22 Apr 2016 2 Nov 2016 Saudi Arabia 3 Nov 2016 3 Nov 2016 Senegal22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Serbia22 Apr 2016 25 Jul 2017 Seychelles25 Apr 2016 29 Apr 2016 Sierra Leone22 Sep 2016 1 Nov 2016 Singapore22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Slovakia22 Apr 2016 5 Oct 2016 Slovenia22 Apr 2016 16 Dec 2016 Solomon Islands22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Somalia22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 South Africa22 Apr 2016 1 Nov 2016 South Sudan22 Apr 2016 23 Feb 2021 Spain22 Apr 2016 12 Jan 2017 Sri Lanka22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 St. Kitts and Nevis22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 St. Lucia22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 St. Vincent and the Grenadines22 Apr 2016 29 Jun 2016 State of Palestine22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Sudan22 Apr 2016 2 Aug 2017 Suriname22 Apr 2016 13 Feb 2019 Sweden22 Apr 2016 13 Oct 2016 Switzerland22 Apr 2016 6 Oct 2017 Syrian Arab Republic13 Nov 2017 aTajikistan22 Apr 2016 22 Mar 2017 Thailand22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Timor-Leste22 Apr 2016 16 Aug 2017 Togo19 Sep 2016 28 Jun 2017 Tonga22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Trinidad and Tobago22 Apr 2016 22 Feb 2018 Tunisia22 Apr 2016 10 Feb 2017 Turkey22 Apr 2016 Turkmenistan23 Sep 2016 20 Oct 2016 Tuvalu22 Apr 2016 22 Apr 2016 Uganda22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Ukraine22 Apr 2016 19 Sep 2016 United Arab Emirates22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 AUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland22 Apr 2016 18 Nov 2016 United Republic of Tanzania22 Apr 2016 18 May 2018 United States of America<superscript>4</superscript>22 Apr 2016 20 Jan 2021 AUruguay22 Apr 2016 19 Oct 2016 Uzbekistan19 Apr 2017 9 Nov 2018 Vanuatu22 Apr 2016 21 Sep 2016 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)22 Apr 2016 21 Jul 2017 Viet Nam22 Apr 2016 3 Nov 2016 AAYemen23 Sep 2016 Zambia20 Sep 2016 9 Dec 2016 Zimbabwe22 Apr 2016 7 Aug 2017
Declarations (Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.) BelgiumDeclaration made upon signature:“This signature engages also the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.”BulgariaDeclaration:“The Republic of Bulgaria recognizes that in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 1, of the Paris Agreement developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. In this context the Republic of Bulgaria notes that as a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Bulgaria is not included in Annex II.”ChinaDeclaration:In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Agreement applies to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.Cook IslandsDeclaration:The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the Paris Agreement and its application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.The Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.European UnionDeclaration:“Declaration by the Union made in accordance with Article 20(3) of the Paris AgreementThe following States are at present Members of the European Union: the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, Ireland, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Republic of Croatia, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The European Union declares that, in accordance with the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 191 and Article 192(1) thereof, it is competent to enter into international agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of the following objectives:- preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;- protecting human health;- prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;- promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change.The European Union will continue to provide information, on a regular basis on any substantial modifications in the extent of its competence, in accordance with Article 20(3) of the Agreement.”IndiaDeclaration:“The Government of India declares its understanding that, as per its national laws; keeping in view its development agenda, particularly the eradication of poverty and provision of basic needs for all its citizens, coupled with its commitment to following the low carbon path to progress, and on the assumption of unencumbered availability of cleaner sources of energy and technologies and financial resources from around the world; and based on a fair and ambitious assessment of global commitment to combating climate change, it is ratifying the Paris Agreement.”Marshall IslandsDeclaration:“…the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares its understanding that ratification of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under any other laws, including international law, and the communication depositing the Republic's instrument of ratification shall include a declaration to this effect for international record;FURTHERMORE, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests…”MexicoInterpretative declaration:… in accordance with their national legal framework, and in consideration of the best and most up-to-date scientific information available and incorporated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Mexican States understands greenhouse gas emissions to mean the release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors and aerosols into the atmosphere, including, where applicable, greenhouse compounds, within a specific area and during a specific period of time.Micronesia (Federated States of)Declaration:“The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia declares its understanding that its ratification of the Paris Agreement does not constitute a renunciation of any rights of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation and liability due to the adverse effects of climate change; andThe Government of the Federated States of Micronesia further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessments on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in the Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels, and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for the national interests of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.”NauruDeclaration:“… the Government, of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility [for] the adverse effects of climate change.FURTHER, the Government of Nauru declares that no provisions in the Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law.AND FURTHER, the Government of Nauru declares its understanding that Article 8 and decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 51 in no way limits the ability of Parties to UNFCCC or the Agreement to raise, discuss, or address any present or future concerns regarding the issues of liability and compensation.The Republic of Nauru put forth its concern intended to recognize and acknowledge its national interest...”NetherlandsDeclaration:“The Kingdom of the Netherlands, for the European part of the Netherlands, declares in accordance with Article 14, paragraph 2, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in conjunction with Article 24 of the Paris Agreement, that it accepts both means of dispute settlement referred to in that paragraph as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting one or both means of dispute settlement.”NiueDeclaration:“The Government of Niue declares its understanding that acceptance of the Paris Agreement and its application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.The Government of Niue further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.”PhilippinesDeclaration:“THAT it is the understanding of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines that its accession to and the implementation of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of rights under any local and international laws or treaties, including those concerning State responsibility for loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;THAT, the accession to and implementation of the Paris Agreement by the Republic of the Philippines is for the purpose of supporting the country's national development objectives and priorities such as sustainable industrial development, the eradication of poverty and provision of basic needs, and securing social and climate justice and energy security for all its citizens.”PolandDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:“The Government of the Republic of Poland recognizes that under Article 9 paragraph 1 of the Paris Agreement developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. In this context the Government of the Republic of Poland notes that Poland is a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change not included in Annex II.”Russian FederationDeclaration:1. The Russian Federation recognizes that, in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 9 of the Agreement, developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation of climate change and adaptation to it in continuation of their existing obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 9 May 1992 (hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”). In this context, the Russian Federation notes that as a Party to the Convention the Russian Federation is not included in Annex II to the Convention.2. The Russian Federation proceeds from the importance of conservation and enhancement of absorbing capacity of forests and other ecosystems, as well as from the necessity of the maximum possible account of this capacity including in the implementation of the Agreement’s mechanisms.3. The Russian Federation considers unacceptable the use of the Agreement and its mechanisms as tools to create barriers to sustainable social and economic development of the Parties to the Convention.Solomon IslandsDeclaration:“… the Government of Solomon Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change;FURTHER, that the Government of Solomon Islands declares that no provision in this Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to impacts of climate change;AND that the Government of Solomon Islands declares that the low ambition of the Paris Agreement and its adequacy to stabilize global temperature to safe level of below 1.5 degree Celsius, such emissions will have severe impacts and undermining our sustainable development efforts…”SpainDeclaration:In the case where this Agreement is ratified by the United Kingdom and its application extended to the territory of Gibraltar, Spain wishes to make the following declaration:1. Gibraltar is a non-autonomous territory whose international relations come under the responsibility of the United Kingdom and which is subject to a decolonisation process in accordance with the relevant decisions and resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations.2. The authorities of Gibraltar have a local character and exercise exclusively internal competences which have their origin and their foundation in the distribution and attribution of competences performed by the United Kingdom in compliance with its internal legislation, in its capacity as sovereign State on which the mentioned non-autonomous territory depends.3. As a result, the eventual participation of authorities of Gibraltar in the application of this Agreement will be understood as carried out exclusively as part of the internal competences of Gibraltar and cannot be considered to modify in any way what was established in the two previous paragraphs.4. The application of this Agreement to Gibraltar cannot be interpreted as an recognition of any rights or situations regarding areas not covered by article 10 of the Treaty of Utrecht of 13 July 1713, concluded between the Crowns of Spain and of the United Kingdom.TuvaluDeclaration:“The Government of Tuvalu hereby notifies that it will apply the Paris Agreement provisionally as provided for in paragraph 4 of Decision 1/CP.21.[…]The Government of Tuvalu further declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Paris Agreement and its provisional application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.The Government of Tuvalu further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.”VanuatuDeclaration:“WHEREAS the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu declares its understanding that ratification of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under any other laws, including international law, and the communication depositing the Republic’s instrument of ratification shall include a declaration to this effect for international record;FURTHERMORE, that the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests...”1With territorial exclusion in respect of Greenland. See C.N.819.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 1 November 2016.2For the European Part of the Netherlands.3On 13 November 2017, New Zealand notified the Secretary-General of the extention of the application of the Agreement to Tokelau (See CN.705.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 13 November 2017). Upon ratification on 4 October 2017, New Zealand notified the Secretary-General of a territorial exclusion in respect of Tokelau (See C.N.723.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 4 October 2016.)4On 3 September 2016, the Government of the United States of America deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Agreement. See C.N.612.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 3 September 2016. On 4 November 2019, the Government of the United States of America notified the Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw from the Agreement which took effect on 4 November 2020 in accordance with article 28 (1) and (2) of the Agreement. See C.N.575.2019.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 4 November 2019. On 20 January 2021, the Government of the United States of America deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Agreement. See C.N.10.2021.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d of 20 January 2021.