CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7cDoha Amendment to the Kyoto ProtocolDoha, 8 December 201231 December 2020, in accordance with article 2 which reads as follows: “This amendment shall enter into force in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Kyoto Protocol.” Pursuant to Article 20, paragraph 4, and Article 21, paragraph 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Amendment shall enter into force for those Parties having accepted it, on the ninetieth day after the date of receipt by the Depositary of an instrument of acceptance by at least three fourths of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol..Parties147See the text of the Amendment in: C.N.718.2012.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c; C.N.491.2013.Reissued.25112014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 7 August 2013 (Proposal of corrections to the Chinese authentic text of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol) and C.N.966.2013.Reissued.25112014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 27 November 2013 (Corrections); C.N.581.2013.Reissued.25112014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 18 September 2013 (Proposal of corrections to the Chinese authentic text of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol) and C.N.967.2013.Reissued.25112014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 27 November 2013 (Corrections); C.N.556.2014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 12 September 2014 (Proposal of correction to the Chinese authentic text) and C.N.811.2014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 18 December 2014 (Corrections); C.N.741.2014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 24 November 2014 (Proposal of corrections to the Arabic, French, Spanish and Russian authentic texts) and C.N.147.2015.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 27 February 2015 (Corrections); C.N.967.2013.Reissued.25112014.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 25 November 2014 (Corrections to the Chinese authentic text).On 8 December 2012, at the eighth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), held in Doha, Qatar, the Parties adopted, in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol, an Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol by <a href="/doc/source/docs/Doha_Decision1_CMP.8-E.pdf" target="_blank">Decision 1/CMP.8</a>.
ParticipantAcceptance(A)Albania22 Oct 2020 AAlgeria28 Sep 2015 AAngola22 Sep 2020 AAntigua and Barbuda23 Sep 2016 AArgentina<superscript>1</superscript> 1 Dec 2015 AArmenia31 Mar 2017 AAustralia 9 Nov 2016 AAustria21 Dec 2017 AAzerbaijan 1 Jul 2015 ABahamas 4 Nov 2015 ABangladesh13 Nov 2013 ABarbados14 Aug 2013 ABelgium14 Nov 2017 ABelize24 Jul 2018 ABenin29 Aug 2018 ABhutan29 Sep 2015 ABolivia (Plurinational State of)17 Sep 2020 ABotswana 7 Mar 2016 ABrazil13 Feb 2018 ABrunei Darussalam14 Nov 2014 ABulgaria21 Dec 2017 ABurkina Faso29 Nov 2016 ACambodia17 Nov 2015 AChile10 Nov 2015 AChina 2 Jun 2014 AComoros 7 Sep 2014 ACongo14 May 2015 ACook Islands 5 Nov 2018 ACosta Rica21 Sep 2016 ACroatia21 Dec 2017 ACuba28 Dec 2016 ACyprus10 Dec 2015 ACzech Republic21 Dec 2017 ADenmark<superscript>2</superscript>21 Dec 2017 ADjibouti23 Sep 2014 ADominica15 Jul 2019 ADominican Republic21 Sep 2016 AEcuador20 Apr 2015 AEgypt 3 Feb 2020 AEl Salvador18 Sep 2019 AEritrea 3 May 2018 AEstonia21 Dec 2017 AEswatini21 Sep 2016 AEthiopia26 Jun 2015 AEuropean Union21 Dec 2017 AFiji19 Sep 2017 AFinland16 Nov 2017 AFrance30 Nov 2017 AGabon 1 Dec 2017 AGambia 7 Nov 2016 AGeorgia16 Jun 2020 AGermany14 Nov 2017 AGhana24 Sep 2020 AGreece21 Dec 2017 AGrenada 1 Apr 2015 AGuatemala15 Oct 2019 AGuinea 6 Apr 2016 AGuinea-Bissau22 Oct 2018 AGuyana23 Dec 2014 AHonduras11 Apr 2014 AHungary 1 Oct 2015 AIceland 7 Oct 2015 AIndia 8 Aug 2017 AIndonesia30 Sep 2014 AIreland21 Dec 2017 AItaly18 Jul 2016 AJamaica 1 Oct 2020 AJordan 3 Jan 2020 AKenya 7 Apr 2014 AKiribati11 Feb 2016 AKuwait 8 May 2019 ALao People's Democratic Republic23 Apr 2019 ALatvia21 Dec 2017 ALesotho18 Jan 2019 ALiberia17 Aug 2015 ALiechtenstein23 Feb 2015 ALithuania22 Nov 2017 ALuxembourg21 Sep 2017 AMadagascar 1 Oct 2015 AMalawi29 Jun 2017 AMalaysia12 Apr 2017 AMaldives 1 Jul 2015 AMali 7 Dec 2015 AMalta21 Dec 2017 AMarshall Islands 7 May 2015 AMauritius 5 Sep 2013 AMexico23 Sep 2014 AMicronesia (Federated States of)19 Feb 2014 AMonaco27 Dec 2013 AMongolia20 Feb 2019 AMontenegro26 Dec 2018 AMorocco 5 Sep 2014 AMyanmar19 Sep 2017 ANamibia17 Feb 2015 ANauru 1 Dec 2014 ANetherlands<superscript>3</superscript>22 Nov 2017 ANew Zealand<superscript>4</superscript>30 Nov 2015 ANicaragua 3 Jul 2019 ANiger 1 Aug 2018 ANigeria 2 Oct 2020 ANiue10 Dec 2019 ANorth Macedonia18 Oct 2019 ANorway12 Jun 2014 APakistan31 Oct 2017 APalau10 Mar 2015 APanama29 Sep 2015 AParaguay21 Feb 2019 APeru24 Sep 2014 APhilippines13 Apr 2016 APoland28 Sep 2018 APortugal22 Nov 2017 AQatar28 Oct 2020 ARepublic of Korea27 May 2015 ARomania 3 May 2016 ARwanda20 Nov 2015 ASamoa18 Sep 2015 ASan Marino 4 Aug 2015 ASenegal27 May 2020 ASerbia30 Jun 2017 ASeychelles15 Jul 2015 ASierra Leone15 Jun 2020 ASingapore23 Sep 2014 ASlovakia16 Nov 2017 ASlovenia21 Dec 2017 ASolomon Islands 5 Sep 2014 ASouth Africa 7 May 2015 ASpain14 Nov 2017 ASri Lanka 2 Dec 2015 ASt. Kitts and Nevis25 Oct 2016 ASt. Lucia20 Nov 2018 ASudan 3 Feb 2014 ASweden14 Nov 2017 ASwitzerland28 Aug 2015 AThailand 1 Sep 2015 ATogo30 Oct 2018 ATonga22 Oct 2018 ATrinidad and Tobago 6 Aug 2015 ATuvalu 4 Dec 2014 AUganda 8 Jul 2015 AUnited Arab Emirates26 Apr 2013 AUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>5</superscript>17 Nov 2017 AUruguay12 Sep 2018 AVanuatu15 Mar 2018 AVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1 Mar 2018 AViet Nam22 Jun 2015 AZambia22 Aug 2019 AZimbabwe20 Apr 2016 A
Declarations and Reservations (Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon acceptance.)BelizeDeclaration:“The Government of Belize declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Doha Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.The Government of Belize declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and the aforesaid Doha Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and, as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interest.”ChinaDeclaration:In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the above-mentioned Amendment applies to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.European UnionDeclaration:“DECLARATION BY THE EUROPEAN UNION MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 24 (3) OF THE KYOTO PROTOCOLThe following are at present Member States of the European Union: the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, Ireland, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Republic of Croatia, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The European Union declares that, in accordance with the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 192 (1) and Article 191 thereof, it is competent to enter into international agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of the following objectives:- preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;- protecting human health;- prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;- promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change.The European Union declares that its quantified emission reduction commitment for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2013-2020) will be fulfilled by means of action by the European Union and its Member States within the respective competence of each. Thelegally binding instruments to implement its commitment, covering matters governed by the Kyoto Protocol as amended by the Doha Amendment, are already in force.The European Union will continue to provide information, on a regular basis, on relevant European Union legal instruments within the framework of the supplementary information incorporated in its National Communication submitted under Article 12 of the Convention for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Article 7 (2) thereof and the guidelines thereunder.”FranceDeclaration:The ratification by the French Republic of the amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, adopted in Doha on 8 December 2012, should be interpreted in the context of the commitment assumed under article 4 of the Protocol by the European Union, from which it is indissociable. The ratification does not therefore apply to the Territories of the French Republic to which the Treaty on European Union is not applicable.Italy<right>5 August 2016</right>Declaration:“With regard to the instrument of acceptance of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol deposited on 18 July 2016, the Government of Italy would like to point out that given the nature of the rights and obligations provided for therein and taking into account the legal system of the European Union (the EU) and its Member States, implementation will only be possible and obligations will come into effect once the EU and all its Member States will have deposited their relevant instruments of acceptance.”Marshall IslandsDeclaration:“… the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares its understanding that ratification of the Doha Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under the international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.Furthermore, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and aforesaid Doha Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests.”Micronesia (Federated States of)Declarations:“[T]he Government of the Federated States of Micronesia declares its understanding that ratification of the aforesaid Doha Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.[T]he Government of the Federated States of Micronesia declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and the aforesaid Doha Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and, as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests.”NauruDeclarations :“[T]he Government of the Republic of Nauru declares its understanding that ratification of the aforesaid Doha Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.[T]he Government of Nauru declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and the aforesaid Doha Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and, as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interest.”PolandDeclaration:1) in the light of the content of the Doha Amendment and given the fact that the European Union and its Member States share competences in the areas covered by the Amendment, performance of the obligations arising under it will only be possible once the European Union and all its Member States have deposited their relevant instruments of acceptance;2) given that the areas regulated by the Doha Amendment fall within respective scope of competence of the European Union and the Member States and having in mind the Agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and Iceland, of the other part, concerning Iceland 's participation in the joint fulfilment of the commitments of the European Union , its Member States and Iceland for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the exercise of rights and obligations arising from the Doha Amendment by the European Union, its Member States and Iceland requires close and consistent cooperation between the European Union, its Member States and Iceland;3) in particular the performance of the obligations arising from the Doha Amendment by the European Union and its Member States, which have significant implications for Member States in terms of their choice between different energy sources or the general structure of their energy supply, requires consistent cooperation of the European Union and all its Member States;4) the acceptance of the Doha Amendment does not restrict rights of the Republic of Poland as a sovereign state having freedom to act on the international scene, to take necessary measures with a view to protecting its rights resulting from treaties concluded in the area of climate change, including the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, done on 11 December 1997, and Paris Agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, done on 12 December 2015.Solomon IslandsDeclarations:“The Government of Solomon Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of the climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.The Government of Solomon Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and the aforesaid Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests.”St. Lucia<right>28 November 2018</right>Declaration:“The Government of Saint Lucia declares its understanding that ratification of the Doha Amendment shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under the international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol, as amended, can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.Furthermore, the Government of Saint Lucia declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol and aforesaid Doha Amendment to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests.”Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Declaration:The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela does not accept the implementation of carbon market mechanisms or mechanisms for the trading of emission rights or units under schemes or arrangements that transgress the rules and norms established in the Convention and environmental integrity, nor does it accept the continuation, proliferation and strengthening of the aforesaid mechanisms through future alliances with other mechanisms of a similar nature that may be established in other international instruments or treaties adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.For the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, this acceptance also involves the strict interpretation and application of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, in that the greenhouse gas emission limitation and reduction commitments are exclusive obligations of Annex I countries, in accordance with the principles established in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which constitute the basis of the Kyoto Protocol, and any other future agreement regulating the subject.For the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, no provision of this Amendment, nor subsequent applications thereof through decisions of the Conference of the Parties, shall constitute a renunciation of any of its rights under international law, nor shall the application thereof be interpreted as a renunciation of or derogation from the general principles of international law, it being understood that all the provisions of article 2, paragraph 3, of the Kyoto Protocol and of articles 2 and 3 as well as article 4, paragraphs 8 and 10, of the United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change are in the national interest.1On 1 October 2020, the Secretary-General received a communication from the Argentine Republic relating to the territorial application by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in respect of Falkland Islands (Malvinas). See C.N.429.2020.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c dated 6 October 2020 for the text of the above-mentioned communication. 2With territorial exclusion in respect of the Faroe Islands and Greenland. See C.N.773.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.7.c of 21 December 2017.3For the European Part of the Netherlands.4Upon its acceptation of the Amendment, the Government of New Zealand notified the Secretary-General of the following: “... consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, [the acceptance by New Zealand of the Doha Amendment] shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory…”5On 1 September 2020, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland notified the Secretary-General that its acceptance of the Amendment is extended to the following territories as follows : “… the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland hereby extends the application of the United Kingdom's acceptance of the Amendment to the following territories for the international relations of which the United Kingdom is responsible: Falkland Islands Gibraltar Isle of Man Bailiwick of Guernsey Bailiwick of Jersey The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland considers the extension of the Amendment to the above territories will come into effect upon the entry into force of the Amendment for the United Kingdom. In the meantime, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the above territories will continue to comply voluntarily.”