CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7aKyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeKyoto, 11 December 199716 February 2005, in accordance with article 25(1) and article 25 (3) which read as follows: "1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in total for at least 55 per cent of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Parties included in Annex I, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession." "3. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification acceptance, approval or accession".16 February 2005, No. 30822Signatories83Parties1921United Nations, <i>Treaty Series</i> , vol. 2303, p. 162; depositary notifications C.N.101.2004.TREATIES-1 of 11 February 2004 [Proposed corrections to the original texts of the Protocol (Arabic and French versions)] and C.N.439.2004.TREATIES-4 of 12 May 2004 [Corrections to the original texts of the Protocol (Arabic and French versions)]; C.N.380.2007.TREATIES-5 of 17 April 2007 (Adoption of an amendment to Annex B of the Protocol).The Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“the Convention”), held at Kyoto (Japan) from 1 to 11 December 1997. The Protocol shall be open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to the Convention at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 in accordance with its article 24 (1).
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Accession(a), Approval(AA)Afghanistan25 Mar 2013 aAlbania 1 Apr 2005 aAlgeria16 Feb 2005 aAngola 8 May 2007 aAntigua and Barbuda16 Mar 1998 3 Nov 1998 Argentina16 Mar 1998 28 Sep 2001 Armenia25 Apr 2003 aAustralia29 Apr 1998 12 Dec 2007 Austria29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Azerbaijan28 Sep 2000 aBahamas 9 Apr 1999 aBahrain31 Jan 2006 aBangladesh22 Oct 2001 aBarbados 7 Aug 2000 aBelarus26 Aug 2005 aBelgium29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Belize26 Sep 2003 aBenin25 Feb 2002 aBhutan26 Aug 2002 aBolivia (Plurinational State of) 9 Jul 1998 30 Nov 1999 Bosnia and Herzegovina16 Apr 2007 aBotswana 8 Aug 2003 aBrazil29 Apr 1998 23 Aug 2002 Brunei Darussalam20 Aug 2009 aBulgaria18 Sep 1998 15 Aug 2002 Burkina Faso31 Mar 2005 aBurundi18 Oct 2001 aCabo Verde10 Feb 2006 aCambodia22 Aug 2002 aCameroon28 Aug 2002 aCanada<superscript>2</superscript>[29 Apr 1998 ][17 Dec 2002 ]Central African Republic18 Mar 2008 aChad18 Aug 2009 aChile17 Jun 1998 26 Aug 2002 China<superscript>3</superscript>29 May 1998 30 Aug 2002 AAColombia30 Nov 2001 aComoros10 Apr 2008 aCongo12 Feb 2007 aCook Islands16 Sep 1998 27 Aug 2001 Costa Rica27 Apr 1998 9 Aug 2002 Côte d'Ivoire23 Apr 2007 aCroatia11 Mar 1999 30 May 2007 Cuba15 Mar 1999 30 Apr 2002 Cyprus16 Jul 1999 aCzech Republic23 Nov 1998 15 Nov 2001 AADemocratic People's Republic of Korea27 Apr 2005 aDemocratic Republic of the Congo23 Mar 2005 aDenmark<superscript>4</superscript>29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Djibouti12 Mar 2002 aDominica25 Jan 2005 aDominican Republic12 Feb 2002 aEcuador15 Jan 1999 13 Jan 2000 Egypt15 Mar 1999 12 Jan 2005 El Salvador 8 Jun 1998 30 Nov 1998 Equatorial Guinea16 Aug 2000 aEritrea28 Jul 2005 aEstonia 3 Dec 1998 14 Oct 2002 Eswatini13 Jan 2006 aEthiopia14 Apr 2005 aEuropean Union29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AAFiji17 Sep 1998 17 Sep 1998 Finland29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 France29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AAGabon12 Dec 2006 aGambia 1 Jun 2001 aGeorgia16 Jun 1999 aGermany29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Ghana30 May 2003 aGreece29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Grenada 6 Aug 2002 aGuatemala10 Jul 1998 5 Oct 1999 Guinea 7 Sep 2000 aGuinea-Bissau18 Nov 2005 aGuyana 5 Aug 2003 aHaiti 6 Jul 2005 aHonduras25 Feb 1999 19 Jul 2000 Hungary21 Aug 2002 aIceland23 May 2002 aIndia26 Aug 2002 aIndonesia13 Jul 1998 3 Dec 2004 Iran (Islamic Republic of)22 Aug 2005 aIraq28 Jul 2009 aIreland29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Israel16 Dec 1998 15 Mar 2004 Italy29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Jamaica28 Jun 1999 aJapan28 Apr 1998 4 Jun 2002 AJordan17 Jan 2003 aKazakhstan12 Mar 1999 19 Jun 2009 Kenya25 Feb 2005 aKiribati 7 Sep 2000 aKuwait11 Mar 2005 aKyrgyzstan13 May 2003 aLao People's Democratic Republic 6 Feb 2003 aLatvia14 Dec 1998 5 Jul 2002 Lebanon13 Nov 2006 aLesotho 6 Sep 2000 aLiberia 5 Nov 2002 aLibya24 Aug 2006 aLiechtenstein29 Jun 1998 3 Dec 2004 Lithuania21 Sep 1998 3 Jan 2003 Luxembourg29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Madagascar24 Sep 2003 aMalawi26 Oct 2001 aMalaysia12 Mar 1999 4 Sep 2002 Maldives16 Mar 1998 30 Dec 1998 Mali27 Jan 1999 28 Mar 2002 Malta17 Apr 1998 11 Nov 2001 Marshall Islands17 Mar 1998 11 Aug 2003 Mauritania22 Jul 2005 aMauritius 9 May 2001 aMexico 9 Jun 1998 7 Sep 2000 Micronesia (Federated States of)17 Mar 1998 21 Jun 1999 Monaco29 Apr 1998 27 Feb 2006 Mongolia15 Dec 1999 aMontenegro 4 Jun 2007 aMorocco25 Jan 2002 aMozambique18 Jan 2005 aMyanmar13 Aug 2003 aNamibia 4 Sep 2003 aNauru16 Aug 2001 aNepal16 Sep 2005 aNetherlands<superscript>5</superscript>29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 ANew Zealand<superscript>6</superscript>22 May 1998 19 Dec 2002 Nicaragua 7 Jul 1998 18 Nov 1999 Niger23 Oct 1998 30 Sep 2004 Nigeria10 Dec 2004 aNiue 8 Dec 1998 6 May 1999 North Macedonia18 Nov 2004 aNorway29 Apr 1998 30 May 2002 Oman19 Jan 2005 aPakistan11 Jan 2005 aPalau10 Dec 1999 aPanama 8 Jun 1998 5 Mar 1999 Papua New Guinea 2 Mar 1999 28 Mar 2002 Paraguay25 Aug 1998 27 Aug 1999 Peru13 Nov 1998 12 Sep 2002 Philippines15 Apr 1998 20 Nov 2003 Poland15 Jul 1998 13 Dec 2002 Portugal29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 AAQatar11 Jan 2005 aRepublic of Korea25 Sep 1998 8 Nov 2002 Republic of Moldova22 Apr 2003 aRomania 5 Jan 1999 19 Mar 2001 Russian Federation11 Mar 1999 18 Nov 2004 Rwanda22 Jul 2004 aSamoa16 Mar 1998 27 Nov 2000 San Marino28 Apr 2010 aSao Tome and Principe25 Apr 2008 aSaudi Arabia31 Jan 2005 aSenegal20 Jul 2001 aSerbia19 Oct 2007 aSeychelles20 Mar 1998 22 Jul 2002 Sierra Leone10 Nov 2006 aSingapore12 Apr 2006 aSlovakia26 Feb 1999 31 May 2002 Slovenia21 Oct 1998 2 Aug 2002 Solomon Islands29 Sep 1998 13 Mar 2003 Somalia26 Jul 2010 aSouth Africa31 Jul 2002 aSpain29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Sri Lanka 3 Sep 2002 aSt. Kitts and Nevis 8 Apr 2008 aSt. Lucia16 Mar 1998 20 Aug 2003 St. Vincent and the Grenadines19 Mar 1998 31 Dec 2004 Sudan 2 Nov 2004 aSuriname25 Sep 2006 aSweden29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 Switzerland16 Mar 1998 9 Jul 2003 Syrian Arab Republic27 Jan 2006 aTajikistan29 Dec 2008 aThailand 2 Feb 1999 28 Aug 2002 Timor-Leste14 Oct 2008 aTogo 2 Jul 2004 aTonga14 Jan 2008 aTrinidad and Tobago 7 Jan 1999 28 Jan 1999 Tunisia22 Jan 2003 aTurkey28 May 2009 aTurkmenistan28 Sep 1998 11 Jan 1999 Tuvalu16 Nov 1998 16 Nov 1998 Uganda25 Mar 2002 aUkraine15 Mar 1999 12 Apr 2004 United Arab Emirates26 Jan 2005 aUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>7,8</superscript>29 Apr 1998 31 May 2002 United Republic of Tanzania26 Aug 2002 aUnited States of America12 Nov 1998 Uruguay29 Jul 1998 5 Feb 2001 Uzbekistan20 Nov 1998 12 Oct 1999 Vanuatu17 Jul 2001 aVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)18 Feb 2005 aViet Nam 3 Dec 1998 25 Sep 2002 Yemen15 Sep 2004 aZambia 5 Aug 1998 7 Jul 2006 Zimbabwe30 Jun 2009 a
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, accession, acceptance or approval.)AustraliaDeclaration:“The Government of Australia declares that it is eligible to apply the second sentence of Article 3.7 of the Protocol, using the Revised 1996 IPCC methodologies, as stipulated in Article 5.2 of the Protocol and paragraph 5 (b) of the Annex to Decision 13/CMP.1.”Cook IslandsUpon signature:Declaration:The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that signature and subsequent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.In this regard, the Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligation in article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."European UnionUpon signature:Declaration:“The European Community and its Member States will fulfil their respective commitments under article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol jointly in accordance with the provisions of article 4.”Upon approval:Declaration by the European Community made in accordance with article 24 (3) of the Kyoto Protocol"The following States are at present members of the European Community: the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The European Community declares that, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular article 175 (1) thereof, it is competent to enter into international agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of the following objectives:- preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;- protecting human health;- prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;- promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or world wide environmental problems.The European Community declares that its quantified emission reduction commitment under the Protocol will be fulfilled through action by the Community and its Member States within the respective competence of each and that it has already adopted legal instruments, binding on its Member States, covering matters governed by the Protocol.The European Community will on a regular basis provide information on relevant Community legal instruments within the framework of the supplementary information incorporated in its national communication submitted under art12 of the Convention for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with its commitments under the Protocol in accordance with article 7 (2) thereof and the guidelines thereunder."IrelandUpon signature:Declaration:"The European Community and the Member States, including Ireland, will fulfil their respective commitments under article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol in accordance with the provisions of article 4."KiribatiDeclaration:"The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that accession to the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of the climate change and that no provision in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law."NauruDeclarations:“... The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change; ...... The Government of the Republic of Nauru further declares that, in the light of the best available scientific information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions of reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system;... [The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares] that no provisions in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law[.]NiueUpon signature:Declaration:"The Government of Niue declares its understanding that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provisions in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law.In this regard, the Government of Niue further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."Russian FederationStatement:The Russian Federation proceeds from the assumption that the commitments of the Russian Federation under the Protocol will have serious consequences for its social and economic development. Therefore, the decision on ratification was taken following a thorough analysis of all factors, inter alia, the importance of the Protocol for the promotion of international cooperation, and taking into account that the Protocol can enter into force only if the Russian Federation ratifies it.The Protocol establishes for each of the Parties that have signed it quantified reductions of greenhouse gas emissions to atmosphere for the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012.The commitments of the Parties to the Protocol on quantified reductions of greenhouse gas emissions to atmosphere for the second and subsequent commitment periods of the Protocol, that is after 2012, will be established through negotiations of the Parties to the Protocol scheduled to start in 2005. On the outcome of these negotiations the Russian Federation will take a decision on its participation in the Protocol in the second and subsequent commitment periods.Syrian Arab RepublicDeclaration:The accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to this Protocol shall in no way imply its recognition of Israel or entail its entry into any dealings with Israel in the matters governed by the provisions thereof.1For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol] , any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.2In accordance with article 27 (2) of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Government of Canada notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol as from the date indicated hereinafter: 3Participant:Date of notification:Date of effect: Canada15 Dec 201115 Dec 2012
3In a communication received on 30 August 2002, the Government of the People’s Republic of China informed the Secretary-General of the following: In accordance with article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1990 and article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1993, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall provisionally not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. Further, in a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following: "In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People's Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise." In a communication received on 14 January 2008, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following: In accordance with Article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.4With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands.5For the Kingdom in Europe.6With the following declaration:".....consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory."7By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following: The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007. The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.8On 4 April 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom informed the Secretary-General that the Protocol shall apply to the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and the Bailiwick of Jersey.