CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
10United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in AfricaParis, 14 October 199426 December 1996, in accordance with article 36(1).26 December 1996, No. 33480Signatories114Parties1971United Nations, <i>Treaty Series </i>, vol. 1954, p. 3; depositary notification C.N.176.1995.TREATIES-6 of 27 July 1995 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic Chinese text); C.N.513.2000.TREATIES-9 of 19 July 2000 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic russian text); C.N.1490.2000.TREATIES-16 of 6 March 2001 (adoption of annex V) and C.N.866.2001.TREATIES-5 of 17 September 2001 (Entry into force of Annex V)<superscript>2</superscript>.The Convention was adopted on 17 June 1994 by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the elaboration of an international convention to combat desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa (established pursuant to <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_47_188-Eng.pdf">resolution 47/188</a><superscript>3</superscript> of the General Assembly dated 22 December 1992), during its Fifth session held at Paris. The Convention was open for signature at Paris by all States and regional economic integration organizations on 14 and 15 October 1994. Thereafter, it remained open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 13 October 1995.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Accession(a), Acceptance(A)Afghanistan 1 Nov 1995 aAlbania27 Apr 2000 aAlgeria14 Oct 1994 22 May 1996 Andorra15 Jul 2002 aAngola14 Oct 1994 30 Jun 1997 Antigua and Barbuda 4 Apr 1995 6 Jun 1997 Argentina15 Oct 1994 6 Jan 1997 Armenia14 Oct 1994 2 Jul 1997 Australia14 Oct 1994 15 May 2000 Austria 2 Jun 1997 aAzerbaijan10 Aug 1998 aBahamas10 Nov 2000 aBahrain14 Jul 1997 aBangladesh14 Oct 1994 26 Jan 1996 Barbados14 May 1997 aBelarus29 Aug 2001 aBelgium30 Jun 1997 aBelize23 Jul 1998 aBenin14 Oct 1994 29 Aug 1996 Bhutan20 Aug 2003 aBolivia (Plurinational State of)14 Oct 1994 1 Aug 1996 Bosnia and Herzegovina26 Aug 2002 aBotswana12 Oct 1995 11 Sep 1996 Brazil14 Oct 1994 25 Jun 1997 Brunei Darussalam 4 Dec 2002 aBulgaria21 Feb 2001 aBurkina Faso14 Oct 1994 26 Jan 1996 Burundi14 Oct 1994 6 Jan 1997 Cabo Verde14 Oct 1994 8 May 1995 Cambodia15 Oct 1994 18 Aug 1997 Cameroon14 Oct 1994 29 May 1997 Canada<superscript>4</superscript>21 Dec 2016 aCentral African Republic14 Oct 1994 5 Sep 1996 Chad14 Oct 1994 27 Sep 1996 Chile 3 Mar 1995 11 Nov 1997 China14 Oct 1994 18 Feb 1997 Colombia14 Oct 1994 8 Jun 1999 Comoros14 Oct 1994 3 Mar 1998 Congo15 Oct 1994 12 Jul 1999 Cook Islands21 Aug 1998 aCosta Rica15 Oct 1994 5 Jan 1998 Côte d'Ivoire15 Oct 1994 4 Mar 1997 Croatia15 Oct 1994 6 Oct 2000 ACuba15 Oct 1994 13 Mar 1997 Cyprus29 Mar 2000 aCzech Republic25 Jan 2000 aDemocratic People's Republic of Korea29 Dec 2003 aDemocratic Republic of the Congo14 Oct 1994 12 Sep 1997 Denmark15 Oct 1994 22 Dec 1995 Djibouti15 Oct 1994 12 Jun 1997 Dominica 8 Dec 1997 aDominican Republic26 Jun 1997 aEcuador19 Jan 1995 6 Sep 1995 Egypt14 Oct 1994 7 Jul 1995 El Salvador27 Jun 1997 aEquatorial Guinea14 Oct 1994 27 Jun 1997 Eritrea14 Oct 1994 14 Aug 1996 Estonia 8 Feb 2012 aEswatini27 Jul 1995 7 Oct 1996 Ethiopia15 Oct 1994 27 Jun 1997 European Union14 Oct 1994 26 Mar 1998 Fiji26 Aug 1998 aFinland15 Oct 1994 20 Sep 1995 AFrance14 Oct 1994 12 Jun 1997 Gabon 6 Sep 1996 aGambia14 Oct 1994 11 Jun 1996 Georgia15 Oct 1994 23 Jul 1999 Germany14 Oct 1994 10 Jul 1996 Ghana15 Oct 1994 27 Dec 1996 Greece14 Oct 1994 5 May 1997 Grenada28 May 1997 aGuatemala10 Sep 1998 aGuinea14 Oct 1994 23 Jun 1997 Guinea-Bissau15 Oct 1994 27 Oct 1995 Guyana26 Jun 1997 aHaiti15 Oct 1994 25 Sep 1996 Honduras22 Feb 1995 25 Jun 1997 Hungary13 Jul 1999 aIceland 3 Jun 1997 aIndia14 Oct 1994 17 Dec 1996 Indonesia15 Oct 1994 31 Aug 1998 Iran (Islamic Republic of)14 Oct 1994 29 Apr 1997 Iraq28 May 2010 aIreland15 Oct 1994 31 Jul 1997 Israel14 Oct 1994 26 Mar 1996 Italy14 Oct 1994 23 Jun 1997 Jamaica12 Nov 1997 aJapan14 Oct 1994 11 Sep 1998 AJordan13 Apr 1995 21 Oct 1996 Kazakhstan14 Oct 1994 9 Jul 1997 Kenya14 Oct 1994 24 Jun 1997 Kiribati 8 Sep 1998 aKuwait22 Sep 1995 27 Jun 1997 Kyrgyzstan19 Sep 1997 aLao People's Democratic Republic30 Aug 1995 20 Sep 1996 ALatvia21 Oct 2002 aLebanon14 Oct 1994 16 May 1996 Lesotho15 Oct 1994 12 Sep 1995 Liberia 2 Mar 1998 aLibya15 Oct 1994 22 Jul 1996 Liechtenstein29 Dec 1999 aLithuania25 Jul 2003 aLuxembourg14 Oct 1994 4 Feb 1997 Madagascar14 Oct 1994 25 Jun 1997 Malawi17 Jan 1995 13 Jun 1996 Malaysia 6 Oct 1995 25 Jun 1997 Maldives 3 Sep 2002 aMali15 Oct 1994 31 Oct 1995 Malta15 Oct 1994 30 Jan 1998 Marshall Islands 2 Jun 1998 aMauritania14 Oct 1994 7 Aug 1996 Mauritius17 Mar 1995 23 Jan 1996 Mexico15 Oct 1994 3 Apr 1995 Micronesia (Federated States of)12 Dec 1994 25 Mar 1996 Monaco 5 Mar 1999 aMongolia15 Oct 1994 3 Sep 1996 Montenegro 4 Jun 2007 aMorocco15 Oct 1994 7 Nov 1996 Mozambique28 Sep 1995 13 Mar 1997 Myanmar 2 Jan 1997 aNamibia24 Oct 1994 16 May 1997 Nauru22 Sep 1998 aNepal12 Oct 1995 15 Oct 1996 Netherlands<superscript>5</superscript>15 Oct 1994 27 Jun 1995 ANew Zealand<superscript>6</superscript> 7 Sep 2000 aNicaragua21 Nov 1994 17 Feb 1998 Niger14 Oct 1994 19 Jan 1996 Nigeria31 Oct 1994 8 Jul 1997 Niue14 Aug 1998 aNorth Macedonia 6 Mar 2002 aNorway15 Oct 1994 30 Aug 1996 Oman23 Jul 1996 aPakistan15 Oct 1994 24 Feb 1997 Palau15 Jun 1999 aPanama22 Feb 1995 4 Apr 1996 Papua New Guinea 6 Dec 2000 aParaguay 1 Dec 1994 15 Jan 1997 Peru15 Oct 1994 9 Nov 1995 Philippines 8 Dec 1994 10 Feb 2000 Poland14 Nov 2001 aPortugal14 Oct 1994 1 Apr 1996 Qatar15 Mar 1999 aRepublic of Korea14 Oct 1994 17 Aug 1999 Republic of Moldova10 Mar 1999 aRomania19 Aug 1998 aRussian Federation29 May 2003 aRwanda22 Jun 1995 22 Oct 1998 Samoa21 Aug 1998 aSan Marino23 Jul 1999 aSao Tome and Principe 4 Oct 1995 8 Jul 1998 Saudi Arabia25 Jun 1997 aSenegal14 Oct 1994 26 Jul 1995 Serbia18 Dec 2007 aSeychelles14 Oct 1994 26 Jun 1997 Sierra Leone11 Nov 1994 25 Sep 1997 Singapore26 Apr 1999 aSlovakia 7 Jan 2002 aSlovenia28 Jun 2001 aSolomon Islands16 Apr 1999 aSomalia24 Jul 2002 aSouth Africa 9 Jan 1995 30 Sep 1997 South Sudan17 Feb 2014 aSpain14 Oct 1994 30 Jan 1996 Sri Lanka 9 Dec 1998 aSt. Kitts and Nevis30 Jun 1997 aSt. Lucia 2 Jul 1997 aSt. Vincent and the Grenadines15 Oct 1994 16 Mar 1998 State of Palestine29 Dec 2017 aSudan15 Oct 1994 24 Nov 1995 Suriname 1 Jun 2000 aSweden15 Oct 1994 12 Dec 1995 Switzerland14 Oct 1994 19 Jan 1996 Syrian Arab Republic15 Oct 1994 10 Jun 1997 Tajikistan16 Jul 1997 aThailand 7 Mar 2001 aTimor-Leste20 Aug 2003 aTogo15 Oct 1994 4 Oct 1995 ATonga25 Sep 1998 aTrinidad and Tobago 8 Jun 2000 aTunisia14 Oct 1994 11 Oct 1995 Turkey14 Oct 1994 31 Mar 1998 Turkmenistan27 Mar 1995 18 Sep 1996 Tuvalu14 Sep 1998 aUganda21 Nov 1994 25 Jun 1997 Ukraine27 Aug 2002 aUnited Arab Emirates21 Oct 1998 aUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>7</superscript>14 Oct 1994 18 Oct 1996 United Republic of Tanzania14 Oct 1994 19 Jun 1997 United States of America14 Oct 1994 17 Nov 2000 Uruguay17 Feb 1999 aUzbekistan 7 Dec 1994 31 Oct 1995 Vanuatu28 Sep 1995 10 Aug 1999 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)29 Jun 1998 aViet Nam25 Aug 1998 aYemen14 Jan 1997 aZambia15 Oct 1994 19 Sep 1996 Zimbabwe15 Oct 1994 23 Sep 1997
Declarations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification,accession or acceptance.)AlgeriaDeclaration:The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 28, paragraph 2, of the [said Convention], to the effect that any dispute must be submitted to the International Court of Justice.The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria declares that for a dispute submitted to the International Court of Justice, the consent of both parties will be necessary in each case.AustriaDeclaration:"The Republic of Austria declares in accordance with article 28 of the Convention that it accepts both of the means of dispute in paragraph 2 as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting an obligation concerning one or both of these means of dispute settlement."EstoniaDeclaration: “In accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 34 of the Convention, any additional regional implementation annex or an amendment to any regional implementation annex shall enter into force with respect to the Republic of Estonia only upon the deposit of its instrument of approval of such annex or amendment with the Depositary.”GuatemalaDeclaration:The Republic of Guatemala declares that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes arbitration in accordance with procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties in an annex as soon as practicable as a means of dispute settlement, compulsory in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation. This declaration shall remain in force until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.KuwaitDeclaration:With respect to the State of Kuwait, any additional regional implementation annex or any amendment to any regional implementation annex shall enter into force only upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession with respect thereto.NetherlandsDeclaration:"The Kingdom of the Netherlands declares, in accordance with paragraph 2 of article 28 of [the said Convention] that it accepts both means of dispute settlement referred to in that paragraph as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting one or both of these means of dispute settlement."New ZealandDeclaration:“Any additional regional implementation annex or any amendment to any regional implementation annex to the Convention shall enter into force for New Zealand only upon the Government of New Zealand’s deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with respect thereto.”United States of AmericaUnderstandings:" (1) Foreign assistance.-- The United States understands that, as a "developed country," pursuant to Article 6 of the Convention and its Annexes, it is not obligated to satisfy specific funding requirements or other specific requirements regarding the provision of any resource, including technology, to any "affected country," as defined in Article 1 of the Convention. The United States understands that ratification of the Convention does not alter its domestic legal processes to determine foreign assistance funding or programs.(2) Financial resources and mechanism.-- The United States understands that neither Article 20 nor Article 21 of the Convention impose obligations to provide specific levels of funding for the Global Environmental Facility, or the Global Mechanism, to carry out the objectives of the Convention, or for any other purpose.(3) United States land management.-- The United States understands that it is a "developed country party" as defined in Article 1 of the Convention, and that it is not required to prepare a national action program pursuant to Part III, Section 1, of the Convention. The United States also understands that no changes to its existing land management practices and programs will be required to meet its obligations under Articles 4 or 5 of the Convention.(4) Legal process for amending the Convention.-- In accordance with Article 34 (4), any additional regional implementation annex to the Convention or any amendment to any regional implementation annex to the Convention shall enter into force for the United States only upon the deposit of a corresponding instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.(5) Dispute settlement.-- The United States declines to accept as compulsory either of the dispute settlement means set out in Article 28(2), and understands that it will not be bound by the outcome, findings, conclusions or recommendations of a conciliation process initiated under Article 28 (6). For any dispute arising from this Convention, the United States does not recognize or accept the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice."1For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol] , any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.2At the fourth session of the Conference of the Parties to the above Convention, held in Bonn, Germany, from 11 to 22 December 2000, the Regional Implementation Annex for Central and Eastern Europe to the above Convention (Annex V) was adopted by decision 7/COP.4 of 22 December 2000 (12th Plenary meeting). None of the Parties having submitted a notification in accordance with the provisions of article 31 (3) (a) or a declaration in accordance with the provisions of article 31 (3) (b) of the Convention, the adoption of annex V became effective for all Parties to the Convention on the expiry of six months from the date of its notification ( 6 March 2001) in accordance with paragraph 3 of article 31, i.e. on 6 September 2001.3<i> Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 49 </i> (A/47/49) (Vol.I), p. 137.4Canada had signed the Convention on 14 October 1994 and had ratified it subsequently on 1 December 1995. Thereafter, on 28 March 2013, in accordance with its article 38 (2), the Government of Canada had notified the Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw from the Convention. The withdrawal took effect on 28 March 2014. On 21 December 2016, Canada deposited with the Secretary-General an instrument of accession to the Convention. 5For the Kingdom in Europe.6With a declaration to the effect that “consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account its commitment to the development of self-government through an act of sef-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory.”7For the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , the British Virgin Islands, St. Helena and Ascension Island. Subsequently, on 24 December 1996, the Government of the United Kingdom notified the Secretary-General that the Convention would apply to Montserrat.