CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
1dProtocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary FluxesGeneva, 18 November 199129 September 1997, in accordance with article 16(1).2 February 1998, No. 34322Signatories23Parties24United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2001, p. 187.The Protocol was drawn up within the framework of the Economic Commission for Europe and was adopted on 18 November 1991 by the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. It was opened for signature at the United Nations Office at Geneva from 18 to 19 November 1991 and thereafter at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York until 22 May 1992.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a)Austria19 Nov 1991 23 Aug 1994 Belgium19 Nov 1991 8 Nov 2000 Bulgaria19 Nov 1991 27 Feb 1998 Canada19 Nov 1991 Croatia 3 Mar 2008 aCzech Republic 1 Jul 1997 aDenmark<superscript>1</superscript>19 Nov 1991 21 May 1996 AEstonia 7 Mar 2000 aEuropean Union 2 Apr 1992 Finland19 Nov 1991 11 Jan 1994 AFrance19 Nov 1991 12 Jun 1997 AAGermany19 Nov 1991 8 Dec 1994 Greece19 Nov 1991 Hungary19 Nov 1991 10 Nov 1995 Italy19 Nov 1991 30 Jun 1995 Liechtenstein19 Nov 1991 24 Mar 1994 Lithuania22 May 2007 aLuxembourg19 Nov 1991 11 Nov 1993 Monaco26 Jul 2001 aNetherlands<superscript>2</superscript>19 Nov 1991 29 Sep 1993 ANorth Macedonia10 Mar 2010 aNorway19 Nov 1991 7 Jan 1993 Portugal 2 Apr 1992 Slovakia15 Dec 1999 aSpain19 Nov 1991 1 Feb 1994 Sweden19 Nov 1991 8 Jan 1993 Switzerland19 Nov 1991 21 Mar 1994 Ukraine19 Nov 1991 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>3</superscript>19 Nov 1991 14 Jun 1994 United States of America19 Nov 1991
Declarations made under article 2 (2)(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were madeupon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.)AustriaDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:"With regard to article 2 (basic obligations) Austria declares to be bound by the provisions of paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>). Furthermore, Austria chooses the year 1988 as a base year with respect to paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)."BelgiumUpon signature:Belgium undertakes to reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30 per cent by the year 1999, using 1988 levels as a basis (article 2, paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)).BulgariaDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:"Bulgaria declares under article 2, paragraph 2, sub-paragraph ( <i>c </i>) that it shall, as soon as possible and as a first step, take effective measures to ensure at least that at the latest by the year 1999 its national annual emissions of VOCs do not exceed the 1988 levels."CanadaUpon signature:"Pursuant to article 2, paragraph 2 of the Protocol, Canada is pleased to inform other Parties to the present Protocol that it selects option ( <i>b </i>) from among the three options available. Base year: 1988."Czech RepublicDeclaration :"[The Government of the Czech Republic] declares that it shall use the 1990 levels as the basis for its reduction of annual emissions of VOCs pursuant to article 2, paragraph 2( <i>a </i>) of the Protocol."DenmarkUpon signature:"Denmark hereby declares that it will reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30% by the year 1999, using 1985 as a basis.European UnionUpon signature:"The European Economic community, taking account in particular of the alternatives available to its Member States in application of Article 2 (2) of the Protocol, hereby declares that its obligations under the Protocol with regard to the objectives for reducing VOC emissions may not be greater than the sum of the obligations entered into by its Member States which have ratified the Protocol."FinlandUpon signature:"Finland declares that it intends to reduce its annual national emissions of VOCs by at least 30%, using 1988 levels as a basis."FranceDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon approval:The French Republic undertakes to reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30 per cent by the year 1999, using 1988 levels as a basis (article 2, paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)).GermanyUpon signature:"Germany specifies that it shall reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30% by the year 1999 using 1988 levels as a basis according to article 2, paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)."GreeceUpon signature:"Greece declares under article 2, paragraph 2, sub-paragraph c) that it shall, as soon as possible and as a first step, take effective measures to ensure at least that at the latest by the year 1999 its national annual emissions of VOCs do not exceed the 1988 levels."HungaryUpon signature:"The Republic of Hungary shall control and reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs or their transboundary fluxes in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 ( <i>c </i>) of article 2 of the Protocol."ItalyUpon signature:"Italy declares its intention to meet the requirements of article 2.1 of the Protocol in the way specified at article 2, paragraph 2, letter ( <i>a </i>) and its intention to indicate as reference year as a basis for reduction: 1990."LiechtensteinUpon signature:"As a basis to reduce its annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30% by the year 1999, Liechtenstein will use 1984 levels."LuxembourgUpon signature:Luxembourg undertakes to reduce its national annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30 per cent by the year 1999, using 1990 levels as a basis (article 2, paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)).MonacoDeclaration :The Government of the Principality of Monaco shall reduce its emissions of VOCs by 30% during the year 2001, using 1990 levels as a basis.NetherlandsDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon acceptance:"The Netherlands declares that it intends to reduce its annual national emissions of VOCs by at least 30% using 1988 levels as a basis."NorwayUpon signature:"The Government of Norway intends to fulfil the obligations of the VOC Protocol as specified in article 2, paragraph 2 (b). Norway will use the year 1989 as the base year for reductions.Based on present prognosis of VOC emissions the total Norwegian reduction of VOC will be in the order of 20% by the year 1999."Norway will apply equivalent measures based on the best available technologies which are economically feasible, outside the TOMA as inside."The Government of Norway will fulfil its obligations in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Norway under the Protocol in conformity with international law."PortugalUpon signature:"Portugal declares under its article 2, paragraph 2, sub-paragraph <i>a </i>), that is shall control and reduce its national annual emissions of VOC's or their transboundary fluxes in accordance with the way specified at that article."Slovakia“... the Slovak Republic specifies the year 1990 as the base year for purposes of the Protocol.”SpainUpon signature:The Government of the Kingdom of Spain declares that it accepts the commitment set forth in article 2 [(2)] ( <i>a </i>) to reduce national annual emissions by at least 30 per cent by the year 1999, using 1988 levels as a basis.SwedenUpon signature:"Sweden declares that it intends to reduce its annual national emissions of VOCs by at least 30%, using 1988 levels as a basis."Upon ratification:"Sweden declares that it intends to reduce its annual national emissions of VOCs by at least 30% by the year 1999, using 1988 levels as a basis."SwitzerlandUpon signature:"As a basis to reduce its annual emissions of VOCs by at least 30% by the year 1999, Switzerland will use 1984 levels."UkraineUpon signature:[The Government of Ukraine] signs [the said Protocol] on the conditions set out in paragraph 2 ( <i>b </i>) of article 2 of the Protocol.In so doing the Government of Ukraine stipulates that the following designated tropospheric ozone management areas (TOMAs) situated in Ukraine should be included in Annex I to the Protocol:TOMA No. 1: the Poltavian, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhian, Donetsk, Lugantsk, Nikolaivian, Khersonian regions (194.3 thousand square kilometres);TOMA No. 2: Lvovian, Ternopol, Ivano-Frankovsk, Zakarpatian regions (62.3 thousand square kilometres).United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandDeclaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:"The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declares] that it intends to reduce its annual national emissions of VOCs by at least 30%, using 1988 levels as a basis."United States of AmericaUpon signature:"In accordance with article 2, paragraph 2 of the Protocol, the Government of the United States of America specifies 1984 emission levels as the basis for its VOC reductions under this Protocol [article 2, paragraph 2 ( <i>a </i>)]".1Upon signature, decision was reserved as concerns the application of the Protocol to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Upon acceptance, the Government of Denmark declared that "This acceptance does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.".2For the Kingdom in Europe.3Application to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man.