CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
1cProtocol to the 1979 Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution concerning the control of emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxesSofia, 31 October 198814 February 1991, in accordance with article 15(1).14 February 1991, No. 27874Signatories25Parties35United Nations, <i>Treaty Series</i>, vol. 1593, p. 287; Depositary notification C.N.252.1988.TREATIES-1 of 6 December 1988.The Protocol was drawn up within the framework of the Economic Commission for Europe and was adopted on 31 October 1988 by the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. It was open for signature at Sofia from 1 to 4 November 1988 and subsequently, at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York until 5 May 1989.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a), Succession(d)Albania16 Jun 2009 aAustria 1 Nov 1988 15 Jan 1990 Belarus 1 Nov 1988 8 Jun 1989 ABelgium 1 Nov 1988 8 Nov 2000 Bulgaria 1 Nov 1988 30 Mar 1989 Canada 1 Nov 1988 25 Jan 1991 Croatia 3 Mar 2008 aCyprus 2 Sep 2004 aCzech Republic<superscript>1</superscript>30 Sep 1993 dDenmark<superscript>2</superscript> 1 Nov 1988 1 Mar 1993 AEstonia 7 Mar 2000 aEuropean Union17 Dec 1993 aFinland 1 Nov 1988 1 Feb 1990 France 1 Nov 1988 20 Jul 1989 AAGermany<superscript>3</superscript> 1 Nov 1988 16 Nov 1990 Greece 1 Nov 1988 29 Apr 1998 Hungary 3 May 1989 12 Nov 1991 AAIreland 1 May 1989 17 Oct 1994 Italy 1 Nov 1988 19 May 1992 Liechtenstein 1 Nov 1988 24 Mar 1994 Lithuania26 May 2006 aLuxembourg 1 Nov 1988 4 Oct 1990 Netherlands<superscript>4</superscript> 1 Nov 1988 11 Oct 1989 ANorth Macedonia10 Mar 2010 aNorway 1 Nov 1988 11 Oct 1989 Poland 1 Nov 1988 23 Nov 2011 Russian Federation 1 Nov 1988 21 Jun 1989 ASlovakia<superscript>1</superscript>28 May 1993 dSlovenia 5 Jan 2006 aSpain 1 Nov 1988 4 Dec 1990 Sweden 1 Nov 1988 27 Jul 1990 Switzerland 1 Nov 1988 18 Sep 1990 Ukraine 1 Nov 1988 24 Jul 1989 AUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>5</superscript> 1 Nov 1988 15 Oct 1990 United States of America 1 Nov 1988 13 Jul 1989 A
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession.)United States of AmericaUpon signature:Statement:"In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the protocol, the Government of the United States of America specifies 1978 as the applicable calendar year for determining measures to control and/or reduce its national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes.The Government of the United States of America believes that there must be a follow-on protocol to establish a control obligation based on scientific, technical and economic factors, including consideration of the protocol's effect on the innovative control technologies program of the United States. If such a protocol is not adopted by 1996, the United States of America will consider withdrawal from this protocol.The Government of the United States of America understands that nations will have the flexibility to meet the overall requirements of the protocol through the most effective means."1Czechoslovakia had signed and approved the Protocol on 1 November 1988 and 17 August 1990, respectively. See also note 1 under “Czech Republic” and note 1 under “Slovakia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.2With a declaration of non-application to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.3The German Democratic Republic had signed the Protocol on 1 November 1988.See also note 2 under “Germany” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.4For the Kingdom in Europe.5The instrument specifies that the said Protocol is ratified in respect of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in the island of Cyprus.