CHAPTER XXVI
DISARMAMENT
8Arms Trade TreatyNew York, 2 April 201324 December 2014, in accordance with article 22.24 December 2014, No. 52373Signatories130Parties110United Nations,<i>Treaty Series</i>,vol. 3013. See also C.N.266.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 10 May 2013 (Proposal of corrections to the original text of the Treaty (Arabic and Chinese authentic texts) and C.N.554.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 19 August 2013 (Corrections); C.N.279.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 16 May 2013 (Proposal of corrections to the original text of the Treaty (French and Spanish authentic texts) and the certified true copies) and C.N.553.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 19 August 2013 (Corrections); C.N.297.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 30 May 2013 (Proposal of corrections to the Russian authentic text and the certified true copies) and C.N.584.2013.TREATIES.XXVI-8 of 13 September 2013 (Corrections).The Treaty was adopted on 2 April 2013 by resolution <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_67_234-B-E.pdf" target="_blank">67/234B</a> during the sixty-seventh session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The Treaty shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York by all States from 3 June 2013 until its entry into force.
ParticipantSignatureProvisional application under article 23(n)Approval(AA), Acceptance(A), Accession(a), RatificationAfghanistan29 Jul 2020 aAlbania 3 Jun 2013 19 Mar 2014 Andorra18 Dec 2014 Angola24 Sep 2013 Antigua and Barbuda 3 Jun 2013 12 Aug 2013 n12 Aug 2013 Argentina 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 Australia 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 Austria 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 n 3 Jun 2014 Bahamas 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 n25 Sep 2014 Bahrain21 Nov 2013 Bangladesh26 Sep 2013 Barbados25 Sep 2013 20 May 2015 Belgium 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 Belize 3 Jun 2013 19 Mar 2015 Benin 3 Jun 2013 7 Nov 2016 Bosnia and Herzegovina25 Sep 2013 25 Sep 2014 Botswana 7 Jun 2019 aBrazil 3 Jun 2013 14 Aug 2018 Bulgaria 2 Jul 2013 2 Apr 2014 Burkina Faso 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 Burundi 3 Jun 2013 Cabo Verde25 Sep 2013 23 Sep 2016 Cambodia18 Oct 2013 Cameroon 3 Dec 2014 18 Jun 2018 Canada19 Jun 2019 aCentral African Republic 7 Oct 2015 aChad25 Sep 2013 25 Mar 2015 Chile 3 Jun 2013 18 May 2018 China 6 Jul 2020 aColombia24 Sep 2013 Comoros26 Sep 2013 Congo25 Sep 2013 Costa Rica 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2013 n25 Sep 2013 Côte d'Ivoire 3 Jun 2013 26 Feb 2015 Croatia 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Cyprus 3 Jun 2013 10 May 2016 Czech Republic 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 Denmark<superscript>1</superscript> 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 AADjibouti 3 Jun 2013 Dominica 1 Oct 2013 21 May 2015 Dominican Republic 3 Jun 2013 7 Aug 2014 El Salvador 5 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Estonia 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 AAEswatini 4 Sep 2013 Finland 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 France 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Gabon25 Sep 2013 Georgia25 Sep 2014 23 May 2016 Germany 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 Ghana24 Sep 2013 22 Dec 2015 Greece 3 Jun 2013 29 Feb 2016 Grenada 3 Jun 2013 21 Oct 2013 Guatemala24 Jun 2013 12 Jul 2016 Guinea29 Jul 2013 21 Oct 2014 Guinea-Bissau26 Sep 2013 22 Oct 2018 Guyana 3 Jun 2013 4 Jul 2013 Haiti21 Mar 2014 Honduras25 Sep 2013 1 Mar 2017 Hungary 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 Iceland 3 Jun 2013 2 Jul 2013 n 2 Jul 2013 Ireland 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Israel18 Dec 2014 Italy 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Jamaica 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 Japan 3 Jun 2013 9 May 2014 AKazakhstan 8 Dec 2017 aKiribati25 Sep 2013 Latvia 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 Lebanon27 Oct 2014 9 May 2019 Lesotho25 Sep 2013 25 Jan 2016 Liberia 4 Jun 2013 21 Apr 2015 Libya 9 Jul 2013 Liechtenstein 3 Jun 2013 16 Dec 2014 Lithuania 3 Jun 2013 18 Dec 2014 Luxembourg 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 Madagascar25 Sep 2013 22 Sep 2016 Malawi 9 Jan 2014 Malaysia26 Sep 2013 Maldives27 Sep 2019 aMali 3 Jun 2013 3 Dec 2013 Malta 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Mauritania 3 Jun 2013 23 Sep 2015 Mauritius23 Jul 2015 aMexico 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2013 n25 Sep 2013 Monaco30 Jun 2016 aMongolia24 Sep 2013 Montenegro 3 Jun 2013 18 Aug 2014 Mozambique 3 Jun 2013 14 Dec 2018 Namibia25 Sep 2014 28 Apr 2020 Nauru25 Sep 2013 Netherlands 3 Jun 2013 18 Dec 2014 ANew Zealand<superscript>2</superscript> 3 Jun 2013 2 Sep 2014 n 2 Sep 2014 Niger24 Mar 2014 24 Jul 2015 Nigeria12 Aug 2013 12 Aug 2013 Niue 6 Aug 2020 aNorth Macedonia25 Sep 2013 6 Mar 2014 Norway 3 Jun 2013 12 Feb 2014 n12 Feb 2014 Palau 3 Jun 2013 8 Apr 2019 Panama 3 Jun 2013 11 Feb 2014 Paraguay19 Jun 2013 9 Apr 2015 Peru24 Sep 2013 16 Feb 2016 Philippines25 Sep 2013 Poland 1 Jul 2013 17 Dec 2014 Portugal 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 Republic of Korea 3 Jun 2013 28 Nov 2016 Republic of Moldova10 Sep 2013 28 Sep 2015 Romania 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 Rwanda 5 Jun 2013 Samoa25 Sep 2013 3 Jun 2014 San Marino19 Dec 2014 29 Jul 2015 Sao Tome and Principe19 Dec 2014 28 Jul 2020 Senegal 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 Serbia12 Aug 2013 12 Aug 2013 n 5 Dec 2014 Seychelles 3 Jun 2013 2 Nov 2015 Sierra Leone25 Sep 2013 12 Aug 2014 Singapore 5 Dec 2014 Slovakia10 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 Slovenia 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 South Africa25 Sep 2013 22 Dec 2014 Spain 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2013 n 2 Apr 2014 St. Kitts and Nevis 5 Jun 2013 15 Dec 2014 St. Lucia 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3 Jun 2013 3 Jun 2014 n 3 Jun 2014 State of Palestine29 Dec 2017 aSuriname 3 Jun 2013 19 Oct 2018 Sweden 3 Jun 2013 16 Jun 2014 n16 Jun 2014 Switzerland 3 Jun 2013 30 Jan 2015 n30 Jan 2015 Thailand25 Nov 2014 Togo 3 Jun 2013 8 Oct 2015 Trinidad and Tobago 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2013 n25 Sep 2013 Turkey 2 Jul 2013 Tuvalu 3 Jun 2013 4 Sep 2015 Ukraine23 Sep 2014 United Arab Emirates 9 Jul 2013 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 3 Jun 2013 2 Apr 2014 n 2 Apr 2014 United Republic of Tanzania 3 Jun 2013 United States of America<superscript>3</superscript>25 Sep 2013 Uruguay 3 Jun 2013 25 Sep 2014 Vanuatu26 Jul 2013 Zambia25 Sep 2013 20 May 2016 Zimbabwe18 Dec 2014
Declarations and Reservations (Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon acceptance, accession, approval, ratification or provisional application.) Belgium<right>7 June 2013</right><i>Declaration:</i> “This signature engages also the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.”ChinaDeclaration:In accordance with the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Treaty applies to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.KazakhstanDeclaration upon accession:“The Republic of Kazakhstan, recognizing the object and purpose of the Treaty and notwithstanding Article 28 of the Treaty, declares that in the application of the Treaty the term “перенаправление” (diversion) in Article 13, paragraph 2 of the Treaty in Russian shall be understood as “незаконное перенаправление” (illegal diversion).”LiechtensteinDeclarations:"It is the understanding of Liechtenstein that the terms "export", "import", "transit", "transshipment" and "brokering" in Article 2, paragraph 2, include, in light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with their ordinary meaning, monetary or non-monetary transactions, such as gifts, loans and leases, and that therefore these activities fall under the scope of this Treaty.It is the understanding of Liechtenstein that the term "grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, attacks directed against civilian objects or civilians protected as such, or other war crimes as defined by international agreements to which it is a party" in Article 6, paragraph 3, encompasses acts committed in international and in non-international armed conflicts, and includes, among others, serious violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949; as well as, for States Parties to the relevant agreements, war crimes as described in the Hague Convention IV of 1907 and its Regulations, the Additional Protocols of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998.It is the understanding of Liechtenstein that the term "knowledge" in Article 6, paragraph 3, in light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with its ordinary meaning, implies that the State Party concerned shall not authorise the transfer if it has reliable information providing substantial grounds to believe that the arms or items would be used in the commission of the crimes listed.It is the understanding of Liechtenstein that the term "overriding risk" in Article 7, paragraph 3, encompasses, in light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with the ordinary meaning of all equally authentic language versions of this term in this Treaty, an obligation not to authorise the export whenever the State Party concerned determines that any of the negative consequences set out in paragraph 1 are more likely to materialise than not, even after the expected effect of any mitigating measures has been considered.It is the understanding of Liechtenstein that Article 26, paragraph 2, seeks to ensure that in a private law dispute, this Treaty cannot be relied upon as a reason to declare as invalid existing or future international defence cooperation agreements concluded between States Parties, and as a consequence, this Treaty remains applicable for any State Party in disregard of obligations under a defence cooperation agreement, in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969."New Zealand<superscript>2</superscript>Declarations:“…the Government of New ZealandDECLARES that it considers that the reference to “ammunitions/munitions” in Article 3 of the Treaty means “ammunition and munitions” and that accordingly the scope of the Treaty includes both ammunition and munitions fired, launched or delivered by the conventional arms covered under Article 2(1);AND DECLARES that it considers the reference to “grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, attacks directed against civilian objects or civilians protected as such, or other war crimes as defined by international agreements to which it is a Party” in Article 6(3), encompasses acts committed in international and in non-international armed conflict, and includes serious violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Convention of 1949 as well as, for States Parties to the relevant agreements, war crimes as described in the Hague Convention IV of 1907 and its Regulations, the Additional Protocols of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;AND DECLARES that it considers the effect of the term “overriding risk” in Article 7(3) is to require that it decline to authorize any export where it is determined that there is a substantial risk of any of the negative consequences in Article 7(1);AND DECLARES that it considers that where a non-monetary transaction, such as a gift, loan or lease, involves the transfer or arms or items within the scope of the Treaty, such transaction will be covered by the Treaty;AND DECLARES that it considers that the Treaty does not place any further restrictions on the international movement of small arms for legitimate recreational and sporting activities where there is no change in ownership of these arms;AND DECLARES that it considers that all obligations in the Treaty relating to transit and transshipment of arms or items within the scope of the Treaty must be read in the light of Article 9 …”SwitzerlandDeclaration:… It is the understanding of Switzerland that the terms "export", "import", "transit", "transshipment" and "brokering" in Article 2, paragraph 2, include, in the light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with their ordinary meaning, monetary or non-monetary transactions, such as gifts, loans and leases, and that therefore these activities fall within the scope of this Treaty.It is the understanding of Switzerland that the term "grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, attacks directed against civilian objects or civilians protected as such, or other war crimes as defined by international agreements to which it is a Party" in article 6, paragraph 3, encompasses acts committed in international and in non-international armed conflicts, and includes, among others, serious violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949; as well as, for States Parties to the relevant agreements, war crimes as described in the Hague Convention IV of 1907 and its Regulations, the Additional Protocols of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998.It is the understanding of Switzerland that the term "knowledge" in Article 6, paragraph 3, in the light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with its ordinary meaning, implies that the State Party concerned shall not authorize the transfer if it has reliable information providing substantial grounds to believe that the arms or items would be used in the commission of the crimes listed.It is the understanding of Switzerland that the term "overriding risk" in Article 7, paragraph 3, encompasses, in the light of the object and purpose of this Treaty and in accordance with the ordinary meaning of all equally authentic language versions of this term in this Treaty, an obligation not to authorize the export whenever the State Party concerned determines that any of the negative consequences set out paragraph 1 are more likely to materialize than not, even after the expected effect of any mitigating measures has been considered.It is the understanding of Switzerland that Article 26, paragraph 2, seeks to ensure that in a private law dispute, this Treaty cannot be relied upon as a reason to declare as invalid existing or future international defence cooperation agreements concluded between States Parties, and as a consequence, this Treaty remains applicable for any State Party in disregard of obligations under a defence cooperation agreement, in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969.1 Upon its Approval of the Treaty, the Government of Denmark notified the Secretary-General of the following: "The Treaty shall not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland until further notice."2 Upon its Ratification of the Treaty, the Government of New Zealand notified the Secretary-General of the following: “… consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, [the] ratification [of the Arms Trade Treaty] shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the depository on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory …”3In a communication received on 18 July 2019, the Government of the United States of America informed the Secretary-General of the following: “This is to inform you, in connection with the Arms Trade Treaty, done at New York on April 2, 2013, that the United States does not intend to become a party to the treaty. Accordingly, the United States has no legal obligations arising from its signature on September 25, 2013. The United States requests that its intention not to become a party, as expressed in this letter, be reflected in the depositary’s status lists relating to this treaty, and all other publicly available media relating to the treaty be updated to reflect this intention not to become a party.”