CHAPTER XXVI
DISARMAMENT
5Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their DestructionOslo, 18 September 19971 March 1999, in accordance with article 17(1).1 March 1999, No. 35597Signatories133Parties164United Nations, <i>Treaty Series </i>, vol. 2056, p. 211; C.N.163.2003.TREATIES-2 of 3 March 2003 [Proposal of corrections to the original of the Convention (authentic Arabic text)] and C.N.270.2003.TREATIES-4 of 7 April 2003 (acceptance).The Convention was concluded by the Diplomatic Conference on an International Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Land Mines at Oslo on 18 September 1997. In accordance with its article 15, the Convention was opened for signature at Ottawa, Canada, by all States from 3 December 1997 until 4 December 1997, and will remain open thereafter at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until its entry into force. By resolution <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_52_38-E.pdf" target="_blank">52/38/A</a>, the General Assembly of the United Nations welcomed the conclusion of the Convention at Oslo and requested the Secretary-General of the United Nations to render the necessary assistance and to provide such services as may be necessary to fulfil the tasks entrusted to him.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a), Succession(d)Afghanistan11 Sep 2002 aAlbania 8 Sep 1998 29 Feb 2000 Algeria 3 Dec 1997 9 Oct 2001 Andorra 3 Dec 1997 29 Jun 1998 Angola 4 Dec 1997 5 Jul 2002 Antigua and Barbuda 3 Dec 1997 3 May 1999 Argentina 4 Dec 1997 14 Sep 1999 Australia 3 Dec 1997 14 Jan 1999 Austria 3 Dec 1997 29 Jun 1998 Bahamas 3 Dec 1997 31 Jul 1998 Bangladesh 7 May 1998 6 Sep 2000 Barbados 3 Dec 1997 26 Jan 1999 Belarus 3 Sep 2003 aBelgium 3 Dec 1997 4 Sep 1998 Belize27 Feb 1998 23 Apr 1998 Benin 3 Dec 1997 25 Sep 1998 Bhutan18 Aug 2005 aBolivia (Plurinational State of) 3 Dec 1997 9 Jun 1998 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 Dec 1997 8 Sep 1998 Botswana 3 Dec 1997 1 Mar 2000 Brazil 3 Dec 1997 30 Apr 1999 Brunei Darussalam 4 Dec 1997 24 Apr 2006 Bulgaria 3 Dec 1997 4 Sep 1998 Burkina Faso 3 Dec 1997 16 Sep 1998 Burundi 3 Dec 1997 22 Oct 2003 Cabo Verde 4 Dec 1997 14 May 2001 Cambodia 3 Dec 1997 28 Jul 1999 Cameroon 3 Dec 1997 19 Sep 2002 Canada 3 Dec 1997 3 Dec 1997 Central African Republic 8 Nov 2002 aChad 6 Jul 1998 6 May 1999 Chile 3 Dec 1997 10 Sep 2001 Colombia 3 Dec 1997 6 Sep 2000 Comoros19 Sep 2002 aCongo 4 May 2001 aCook Islands 3 Dec 1997 15 Mar 2006 Costa Rica 3 Dec 1997 17 Mar 1999 Côte d'Ivoire 3 Dec 1997 30 Jun 2000 Croatia 4 Dec 1997 20 May 1998 Cyprus 4 Dec 1997 17 Jan 2003 Czech Republic 3 Dec 1997 26 Oct 1999 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2 May 2002 aDenmark 4 Dec 1997 8 Jun 1998 Djibouti 3 Dec 1997 18 May 1998 Dominica 3 Dec 1997 26 Mar 1999 Dominican Republic 3 Dec 1997 30 Jun 2000 Ecuador 4 Dec 1997 29 Apr 1999 El Salvador 4 Dec 1997 27 Jan 1999 Equatorial Guinea16 Sep 1998 aEritrea27 Aug 2001 aEstonia12 May 2004 aEswatini 4 Dec 1997 22 Dec 1998 Ethiopia 3 Dec 1997 17 Dec 2004 Fiji 3 Dec 1997 10 Jun 1998 Finland 9 Jan 2012 aFrance 3 Dec 1997 23 Jul 1998 Gabon 3 Dec 1997 8 Sep 2000 Gambia 4 Dec 1997 23 Sep 2002 Germany 3 Dec 1997 23 Jul 1998 Ghana 4 Dec 1997 30 Jun 2000 Greece 3 Dec 1997 25 Sep 2003 Grenada 3 Dec 1997 19 Aug 1998 Guatemala 3 Dec 1997 26 Mar 1999 Guinea 4 Dec 1997 8 Oct 1998 Guinea-Bissau 3 Dec 1997 22 May 2001 Guyana 4 Dec 1997 5 Aug 2003 Haiti 3 Dec 1997 15 Feb 2006 Holy See 4 Dec 1997 17 Feb 1998 Honduras 3 Dec 1997 24 Sep 1998 Hungary 3 Dec 1997 6 Apr 1998 Iceland 4 Dec 1997 5 May 1999 Indonesia 4 Dec 1997 16 Feb 2007 Iraq15 Aug 2007 aIreland 3 Dec 1997 3 Dec 1997 Italy 3 Dec 1997 23 Apr 1999 Jamaica 3 Dec 1997 17 Jul 1998 Japan 3 Dec 1997 30 Sep 1998 AJordan11 Aug 1998 13 Nov 1998 Kenya 5 Dec 1997 23 Jan 2001 Kiribati 7 Sep 2000 aKuwait30 Jul 2007 aLatvia 1 Jul 2005 aLesotho 4 Dec 1997 2 Dec 1998 Liberia23 Dec 1999 aLiechtenstein 3 Dec 1997 5 Oct 1999 Lithuania26 Feb 1999 12 May 2003 Luxembourg 4 Dec 1997 14 Jun 1999 Madagascar 4 Dec 1997 16 Sep 1999 Malawi 4 Dec 1997 13 Aug 1998 Malaysia 3 Dec 1997 22 Apr 1999 Maldives 1 Oct 1998 7 Sep 2000 Mali 3 Dec 1997 2 Jun 1998 Malta 4 Dec 1997 7 May 2001 Marshall Islands 4 Dec 1997 Mauritania 3 Dec 1997 21 Jul 2000 Mauritius<superscript>1</superscript> 3 Dec 1997 3 Dec 1997 Mexico 3 Dec 1997 9 Jun 1998 Monaco 4 Dec 1997 17 Nov 1998 Montenegro<superscript>2</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dMozambique 3 Dec 1997 25 Aug 1998 Namibia 3 Dec 1997 21 Sep 1998 Nauru 7 Aug 2000 aNetherlands<superscript>3</superscript> 3 Dec 1997 12 Apr 1999 ANew Zealand 3 Dec 1997 27 Jan 1999 Nicaragua 4 Dec 1997 30 Nov 1998 Niger 4 Dec 1997 23 Mar 1999 Nigeria27 Sep 2001 aNiue 3 Dec 1997 15 Apr 1998 North Macedonia 9 Sep 1998 aNorway 3 Dec 1997 9 Jul 1998 Oman20 Aug 2014 aPalau19 Nov 2007 aPanama 4 Dec 1997 7 Oct 1998 Papua New Guinea28 Jun 2004 aParaguay 3 Dec 1997 13 Nov 1998 Peru 3 Dec 1997 17 Jun 1998 Philippines 3 Dec 1997 15 Feb 2000 Poland 4 Dec 1997 27 Dec 2012 Portugal 3 Dec 1997 19 Feb 1999 Qatar 4 Dec 1997 13 Oct 1998 Republic of Moldova 3 Dec 1997 8 Sep 2000 Romania 3 Dec 1997 30 Nov 2000 Rwanda 3 Dec 1997 8 Jun 2000 Samoa 3 Dec 1997 23 Jul 1998 San Marino 3 Dec 1997 18 Mar 1998 Sao Tome and Principe30 Apr 1998 31 Mar 2003 Senegal 3 Dec 1997 24 Sep 1998 Serbia<superscript>4</superscript>18 Sep 2003 aSeychelles 4 Dec 1997 2 Jun 2000 Sierra Leone29 Jul 1998 25 Apr 2001 Slovakia 3 Dec 1997 25 Feb 1999 AASlovenia 3 Dec 1997 27 Oct 1998 Solomon Islands 4 Dec 1997 26 Jan 1999 Somalia16 Apr 2012 aSouth Africa 3 Dec 1997 26 Jun 1998 South Sudan11 Nov 2011 dSpain 3 Dec 1997 19 Jan 1999 Sri Lanka13 Dec 2017 aSt. Kitts and Nevis 3 Dec 1997 2 Dec 1998 St. Lucia 3 Dec 1997 13 Apr 1999 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3 Dec 1997 1 Aug 2001 State of Palestine29 Dec 2017 aSudan 4 Dec 1997 13 Oct 2003 Suriname 4 Dec 1997 23 May 2002 Sweden 4 Dec 1997 30 Nov 1998 Switzerland 3 Dec 1997 24 Mar 1998 Tajikistan12 Oct 1999 aThailand 3 Dec 1997 27 Nov 1998 Timor-Leste 7 May 2003 aTogo 4 Dec 1997 9 Mar 2000 Trinidad and Tobago 4 Dec 1997 27 Apr 1998 Tunisia 4 Dec 1997 9 Jul 1999 Turkey25 Sep 2003 aTurkmenistan 3 Dec 1997 19 Jan 1998 Tuvalu13 Sep 2011 aUganda 3 Dec 1997 25 Feb 1999 Ukraine<superscript>5,6</superscript>24 Feb 1999 27 Dec 2005 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>7</superscript> 3 Dec 1997 31 Jul 1998 United Republic of Tanzania 3 Dec 1997 13 Nov 2000 Uruguay 3 Dec 1997 7 Jun 2001 Vanuatu 4 Dec 1997 16 Sep 2005 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 3 Dec 1997 14 Apr 1999 Yemen 4 Dec 1997 1 Sep 1998 Zambia12 Dec 1997 23 Feb 2001 Zimbabwe 3 Dec 1997 18 Jun 1998
Declarations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations were made upon ratification, acceptance,approval, accession, or succession.)ArgentinaInterpretative declaration:The Argentine Republic declares that in its territory, in the Malvinas, there are anti-personnel mines. This situation was brought to the attention of the Secretary-General of the United Nations when providing information within the framework of General Assembly resolutions 48/7; 49/215; 50/82; and 51/149 concerning "Assistance in mine clearance".Since this part of the Argentine territory is under illegal occupation by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Argentine Republic is effectively prevented from having access to the anti-personnel mines placed in the Malvinas in order to fulfil the obligations undertaken in the present Convention.The United Nations General Assembly has recognized the existence of a dispute concerning sovereignty over the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich and has urged the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to maintain negotiations in order to find as soon as possible a peaceful and lasting solution to the dispute, with the good offices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who is to report to the General Assembly on the progress made (resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25). The Special Committee on decolonization has taken the same position, and has adopted a resolution every year stating that the way to put an end to this colonial situation is the lasting settlement, on a peaceful and negotiated basis, of the sovereignty dispute, and requesting both Governments to resume negotiations to that end. The most recent of these resolutions was adopted on 1 July 1999.The Argentine Republic reaffirms its rights of sovereignty over the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich and the surrounding maritime areas which form an integral part of its national territory.]AustraliaDeclarations:“It is the understanding of Australia that, in the context of operations, exercises or other military activity authorised by the United Nations or otherwise conducted in accordance with international law, the participation by the Australian Defence Force, or individual Australian citizens or residents, in such operations, exercises or other military activity conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the Convention which engage in activity prohibited under the Convention would not, by itself, be considered to be in violation of the Convention.It is the understanding of Australia that, in relation to Article 1(a), the term "use" means the actual physical emplacement of anti-personnel mines and does not include receiving an indirect or incidental benefit from anti-personnel mines laid by another State or person. In Article 1(c) Australia will interpret the word "assist" to mean the actual and direct physical participation in any activity prohibited by the Convention but does not include permissible indirect support such as the provision of security for the personnel of a State not party to the Convention engaging in such activities, "encourage" to mean the actual request for the commission of any activity prohibited by the Convention, and "induce" to mean the active engagement in the offering of threats or incentives to obtain the commission of any activity prohibited by the Convention.It is the understanding of Australia that in relation to Article 2(1), the definition of "anti-personnel mines" does not include command detonated munitions.In relation to Articles 4, 5(1) and (2), and 7(1)(b) and (c), it is the understanding of Australia that the phrase "jurisdiction or control" is intended to mean within the sovereign territory of a State Party or over which it exercises legal responsibility by virtue of a United Nations mandate or arrangement with another State and the ownership or physical possession of a-personnel mines, but does not include the temporary occupation of, or presence on, foreign territory where anti-personnel mines have been laid by other States or persons.”CanadaUnderstanding:"It is the understanding of the Government of Canada that, in the context of operations, exercises or other military activity sanctioned by the United Nations or otherwise conducted in accordance with international law, the mere participation by the Canadian Forces, or individual Canadians, in operations, exercises or other military activity conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the Convention which engage in activity prohibited under the Convention would not, by itself, be considered to be assistance, encouragement or inducement in accordance with the meaning of those terms in article 1, paragraph 1 (c)."ChileDeclaration:The Republic of Chile declares that it will apply provisionally paragraph 1 of article 1 of the Convention.Czech RepublicDeclaration:"It is the understanding of the Government of the Czech Republic that the mere participation in the planning or execution of operations, exercises or other military activities by the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic, or individual Czech Republic nationals, conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the [Convention], which engage in activities prohibited under the Convention, is not, by itself, assistance, encouragement or inducement for the purposes of Article 1, paragraph 1 (c) of the Convention."GreeceUpon signature:Declaration:"Greece fully subscribes to the principles enshrined within the [Convention] and declares that ratification of this Convention will take place as soon as conditions relating to the implementation of its relevant provisions are fulfilled."LithuaniaUpon signature:Declaration:"The Republic of Lithuania subscribes to the principles and purposes of the [Convention] and declares that ratification of the Convention will take place as soon as [the] relevant conditions relating to the implementation of the provisions of the Convention are fulfilled."Montenegro<superscript>2</superscript>Confirmed upon succession:Declaration:".....it is the understanding of Serbia and Montenegro that the mere participation in the planning or conduct of operations, exercises or any other military activities by the armed forces of Serbia and Montenegro, or by any of its nationals, if carried out in conjunction with armed forces of the non-State Parties (to the Convention), which engage in activities prohibited under the Convention, does not in any way imply an assistance, encouragement or inducement as referred to in subparagraph 1 (c) of the Convention."PolandDeclaration:"It is the understanding of the Government of the Republic of Poland that the mere participation in the planning or execution of operations, exercises or other military activity by the Polish Armed Forces, or individual Polish nationals, conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the [Convention], which engage in activity prohibited under that Convention, is not, by itself, assistance, encouragement or inducement for the purposes of Article 1, paragraph (c) of the Convention."Serbia<superscript>4</superscript><i>Confirmed upon succession:</i><i>Declaration:</i>".....it is the understanding of Serbia and Montenegro that the mere participation in the planning or conduct of operations, exercises or any other military activities by the armed forces of Serbia and Montenegro, or by any of its nationals, if carried out in conjunction with armed forces of the non-State Parties (to the Convention), which engage in activities prohibited under the Convention, does not in any way imply an assistance, encouragement or inducement as referred to in subparagraph 1 (c) of the Convention."United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandDeclaration:"It is the understanding of the Government of the United Kingdom that the mere participation in the planning or execution of operations, exercises or other military activity by the United Kingdom’s Armed Forces, or individual United Kingdom nationals, conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the [said Convention], which engage in activity prohibited under that Convention, is not, by itself, assistance, encouragement or inducement for the purposes of Article 1, paragraph (c) of the Convention."Declarations made under article 18 (1) (Declaration of provisional application)AustriaMauritiusSouth AfricaSwedenSwitzerland1On 9 January 2020, the Secretary-General received a communication from the Government of Mauritius relating to the Chagos Archipelago. See C.N.52.2020.TREATIES-XXVI.5 of 31 January 2020 for the text of the above-mentioned communication. 2See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.3 On behalf of the Kingdom in Europe. Subsequently, on 21 February 2014, the Government the Netherlands informed the Secretary-General of the Territorial Application to the Caribbean part of the Netherland (The Islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba).4See note 1 under "Serbia" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.5On 30 March 2016, the Government of Ukraine made a communication. The text can be found here: C.N.121.2016.TREATIES-XXVI-5 of 31 March 2016.6On 31 May 2018, the Government of Ukraine made a communication. The text can be found here: C.N.285.2018.TREATIES-XXVI-5 of 12 June 2018.7On 4 December 2001: Extension to the following territories for whose international relations the United Kingdom is responsible: Anguilla, Bermuda British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Monsterrat, Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, St. Helena and Dependencies, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia and Turks and Caicos Islands.On 3 April 2002: Extension to the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man.