CHAPTER XXVI
DISARMAMENT
4Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban TreatyNew York, 10 September 1996[see article XIV]. This Treaty will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all States listed in Annex 2 to this Treaty (that is to say: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Viet Nam and Zaire), but in no case earlier than two years after its opening for signature. 2. If this Treaty has not entered into force three years after the date of the anniversary of its opening for signature, the Depositary shall convene a Conference of the States that have already deposited their instruments of ratification upon the request of a majority of those States. That Conference shall examine the extent to which the requirement set out in paragraph 1 has been met and shall consider and decide by consensus what measure consistent with international law may facilitate the early entry into force of this Treaty. 3. Unless otherwise decided by the Conference referred to in paragraph 2 or other such conferences, this process shall be repeated at subsequent anniversaries of the opening for signature of this Treaty, until its entry into force. 4. All States Signatories shall be invited to attend the Conference referred to in paragraph 2 and any subsequent conferences as referred to in paragraph 3, as observers. 5. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.".Signatories185Parties170<a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_50_1027-E.pdf" target="_blank">Doc. A/50/1027</a>; and C.N.429.2002.TREATIES-3 of 6 May 2002 [proposed corrections to the original text of the treaty (Arabic text)] and C.N.629.2002.TREATIES-4 of 11 June 2002 [procès-verbal of rectification (Arabic text)].At its 50th session, the General Assembly adopted, on 10 September 1996 by resolution <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_50_245-E.pdf" target="_blank">A/RES/50/245</a> the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty as contained in document <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_50_1027-E.pdf" target="_blank">A/50/1027</a>. In the same resolution, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General, as depositary of the Treaty, to open it for signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York at the earliest possible date. The Treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996 and it will remain open for signature until its entry into force, in accordance with article XI.
ParticipantSignature, Succession to signature(d)Succession(d), RatificationAfghanistan24 Sep 2003 24 Sep 2003 Albania27 Sep 1996 23 Apr 2003 Algeria15 Oct 1996 11 Jul 2003 Andorra24 Sep 1996 12 Jul 2006 Angola27 Sep 1996 20 Mar 2015 Antigua and Barbuda16 Apr 1997 11 Jan 2006 Argentina24 Sep 1996 4 Dec 1998 Armenia 1 Oct 1996 12 Jul 2006 Australia24 Sep 1996 9 Jul 1998 Austria24 Sep 1996 13 Mar 1998 Azerbaijan28 Jul 1997 2 Feb 1999 Bahamas 4 Feb 2005 30 Nov 2007 Bahrain24 Sep 1996 12 Apr 2004 Bangladesh24 Oct 1996 8 Mar 2000 Barbados14 Jan 2008 14 Jan 2008 Belarus24 Sep 1996 13 Sep 2000 Belgium24 Sep 1996 29 Jun 1999 Belize14 Nov 2001 26 Mar 2004 Benin27 Sep 1996 6 Mar 2001 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)24 Sep 1996 4 Oct 1999 Bosnia and Herzegovina24 Sep 1996 26 Oct 2006 Botswana16 Sep 2002 28 Oct 2002 Brazil24 Sep 1996 24 Jul 1998 Brunei Darussalam22 Jan 1997 10 Jan 2013 Bulgaria24 Sep 1996 29 Sep 1999 Burkina Faso27 Sep 1996 17 Apr 2002 Burundi24 Sep 1996 24 Sep 2008 Cabo Verde 1 Oct 1996 1 Mar 2006 Cambodia26 Sep 1996 10 Nov 2000 Cameroon16 Nov 2001 6 Feb 2006 Canada24 Sep 1996 18 Dec 1998 Central African Republic19 Dec 2001 26 May 2010 Chad 8 Oct 1996 8 Feb 2013 Chile24 Sep 1996 12 Jul 2000 China24 Sep 1996 Colombia24 Sep 1996 29 Jan 2008 Comoros12 Dec 1996 19 Feb 2021 Congo11 Feb 1997 2 Sep 2014 Cook Islands 5 Dec 1997 6 Sep 2005 Costa Rica24 Sep 1996 25 Sep 2001 Côte d'Ivoire25 Sep 1996 11 Mar 2003 Croatia24 Sep 1996 2 Mar 2001 Cuba 4 Feb 2021 4 Feb 2021 Cyprus24 Sep 1996 18 Jul 2003 Czech Republic12 Nov 1996 11 Sep 1997 Democratic Republic of the Congo 4 Oct 1996 28 Sep 2004 Denmark24 Sep 1996 21 Dec 1998 Djibouti21 Oct 1996 15 Jul 2005 Dominican Republic 3 Oct 1996 4 Sep 2007 Ecuador24 Sep 1996 12 Nov 2001 Egypt14 Oct 1996 El Salvador24 Sep 1996 11 Sep 1998 Equatorial Guinea 9 Oct 1996 Eritrea11 Nov 2003 11 Nov 2003 Estonia20 Nov 1996 13 Aug 1999 Eswatini24 Sep 1996 21 Sep 2016 Ethiopia25 Sep 1996 8 Aug 2006 Fiji24 Sep 1996 10 Oct 1996 Finland24 Sep 1996 15 Jan 1999 France24 Sep 1996 6 Apr 1998 Gabon 7 Oct 1996 20 Sep 2000 Gambia 9 Apr 2003 Georgia24 Sep 1996 27 Sep 2002 Germany24 Sep 1996 20 Aug 1998 Ghana 3 Oct 1996 14 Jun 2011 Greece24 Sep 1996 21 Apr 1999 Grenada10 Oct 1996 19 Aug 1998 Guatemala20 Sep 1999 12 Jan 2012 Guinea 3 Oct 1996 22 Sep 2011 Guinea-Bissau11 Apr 1997 24 Sep 2013 Guyana 7 Sep 2000 7 Mar 2001 Haiti24 Sep 1996 1 Dec 2005 Holy See24 Sep 1996 18 Jul 2001 Honduras25 Sep 1996 30 Oct 2003 Hungary25 Sep 1996 13 Jul 1999 Iceland24 Sep 1996 26 Jun 2000 Indonesia24 Sep 1996 6 Feb 2012 Iran (Islamic Republic of)24 Sep 1996 Iraq19 Aug 2008 26 Sep 2013 Ireland24 Sep 1996 15 Jul 1999 Israel25 Sep 1996 Italy24 Sep 1996 1 Feb 1999 Jamaica11 Nov 1996 13 Nov 2001 Japan24 Sep 1996 8 Jul 1997 Jordan26 Sep 1996 25 Aug 1998 Kazakhstan30 Sep 1996 14 May 2002 Kenya14 Nov 1996 30 Nov 2000 Kiribati 7 Sep 2000 7 Sep 2000 Kuwait24 Sep 1996 6 May 2003 Kyrgyzstan 8 Oct 1996 2 Oct 2003 Lao People's Democratic Republic30 Jul 1997 5 Oct 2000 Latvia24 Sep 1996 20 Nov 2001 Lebanon16 Sep 2005 21 Nov 2008 Lesotho30 Sep 1996 14 Sep 1999 Liberia 1 Oct 1996 17 Aug 2009 Libya13 Nov 2001 6 Jan 2004 Liechtenstein27 Sep 1996 21 Sep 2004 Lithuania 7 Oct 1996 7 Feb 2000 Luxembourg24 Sep 1996 26 May 1999 Madagascar 9 Oct 1996 15 Sep 2005 Malawi 9 Oct 1996 21 Nov 2008 Malaysia23 Jul 1998 17 Jan 2008 Maldives 1 Oct 1997 7 Sep 2000 Mali18 Feb 1997 4 Aug 1999 Malta24 Sep 1996 23 Jul 2001 Marshall Islands24 Sep 1996 28 Oct 2009 Mauritania24 Sep 1996 30 Apr 2003 Mexico24 Sep 1996 5 Oct 1999 Micronesia (Federated States of)24 Sep 1996 25 Jul 1997 Monaco 1 Oct 1996 18 Dec 1998 Mongolia 1 Oct 1996 8 Aug 1997 Montenegro<superscript>1</superscript>23 Oct 2006 d23 Oct 2006 dMorocco24 Sep 1996 17 Apr 2000 Mozambique26 Sep 1996 4 Nov 2008 Myanmar25 Nov 1996 21 Sep 2016 Namibia24 Sep 1996 29 Jun 2001 Nauru 8 Sep 2000 12 Nov 2001 Nepal 8 Oct 1996 Netherlands<superscript>2</superscript>24 Sep 1996 23 Mar 1999 New Zealand27 Sep 1996 19 Mar 1999 Nicaragua24 Sep 1996 5 Dec 2000 Niger 3 Oct 1996 9 Sep 2002 Nigeria 8 Sep 2000 27 Sep 2001 Niue 9 Apr 2012 4 Mar 2014 North Macedonia29 Oct 1998 14 Mar 2000 Norway24 Sep 1996 15 Jul 1999 Oman23 Sep 1999 13 Jun 2003 Palau12 Aug 2003 1 Aug 2007 Panama24 Sep 1996 23 Mar 1999 Papua New Guinea25 Sep 1996 Paraguay25 Sep 1996 4 Oct 2001 Peru25 Sep 1996 12 Nov 1997 Philippines24 Sep 1996 23 Feb 2001 Poland24 Sep 1996 25 May 1999 Portugal24 Sep 1996 26 Jun 2000 Qatar24 Sep 1996 3 Mar 1997 Republic of Korea24 Sep 1996 24 Sep 1999 Republic of Moldova24 Sep 1997 16 Jan 2007 Romania24 Sep 1996 5 Oct 1999 Russian Federation24 Sep 1996 30 Jun 2000 Rwanda30 Nov 2004 30 Nov 2004 Samoa 9 Oct 1996 27 Sep 2002 San Marino 7 Oct 1996 12 Mar 2002 Sao Tome and Principe26 Sep 1996 Senegal26 Sep 1996 9 Jun 1999 Serbia 8 Jun 2001 19 May 2004 Seychelles24 Sep 1996 13 Apr 2004 Sierra Leone 8 Sep 2000 17 Sep 2001 Singapore14 Jan 1999 10 Nov 2001 Slovakia30 Sep 1996 3 Mar 1998 Slovenia24 Sep 1996 31 Aug 1999 Solomon Islands 3 Oct 1996 South Africa24 Sep 1996 30 Mar 1999 Spain24 Sep 1996 31 Jul 1998 Sri Lanka24 Oct 1996 St. Kitts and Nevis23 Mar 2004 27 Apr 2005 St. Lucia 4 Oct 1996 5 Apr 2001 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2 Jul 2009 23 Sep 2009 Sudan10 Jun 2004 10 Jun 2004 Suriname14 Jan 1997 7 Feb 2006 Sweden24 Sep 1996 2 Dec 1998 Switzerland24 Sep 1996 1 Oct 1999 Tajikistan 7 Oct 1996 10 Jun 1998 Thailand12 Nov 1996 25 Sep 2018 Timor-Leste26 Sep 2008 Togo 2 Oct 1996 2 Jul 2004 Trinidad and Tobago 8 Oct 2009 26 May 2010 Tunisia16 Oct 1996 23 Sep 2004 Turkey24 Sep 1996 16 Feb 2000 Turkmenistan24 Sep 1996 20 Feb 1998 Tuvalu25 Sep 2018 Uganda 7 Nov 1996 14 Mar 2001 Ukraine27 Sep 1996 23 Feb 2001 United Arab Emirates25 Sep 1996 18 Sep 2000 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland24 Sep 1996 6 Apr 1998 United Republic of Tanzania30 Sep 2004 30 Sep 2004 United States of America24 Sep 1996 Uruguay24 Sep 1996 21 Sep 2001 Uzbekistan 3 Oct 1996 29 May 1997 Vanuatu24 Sep 1996 16 Sep 2005 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 3 Oct 1996 13 May 2002 Viet Nam24 Sep 1996 10 Mar 2006 Yemen30 Sep 1996 Zambia 3 Dec 1996 23 Feb 2006 Zimbabwe13 Oct 1999 13 Feb 2019
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification or succession.)ChinaDeclarations made upon signature:1. China has all along stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons and the realization of a nuclear-weapon-free world. It is in favor of a comprehensive ban on nuclear weapon test explosions in the process towards this objective. China is deeply convinced that the CTBT will facilitate nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, China supports the conclusion, through negotiation, of a fair, reasonable and verifiable treaty with universal adherence and unlimited duration and is ready to take active measures to promote its ratification and entry into force.2. Meanwhile, the Chinese Government solemnly makes the following appeals:(1) Major nuclear weapon states should abandon their policy of nuclear deterrence. States with huge nuclear arsenals should continue to drastically reduce their nuclear stockpiles.(2) All countries that have deployed nuclear weapons on foreign soil should withdraw all of them to their own land. All nuclear weapon states should undertake not to be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, commit themselves unconditionally to the non-use or threat of use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states or nuclear weapon-free zones, and conclude, at an early date, international legal instruments to this effect.(3) All nuclear weapon states should pledge their support to proposals for the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, respect their status as such and undertake corresponding obligations.(4) No country should develop or deploy space weapon systems or missile defence systems undermining strategic security and stability.(5) An international convention on the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons should be concluded through negotiations.3. The Chinese Government endorses the application of verification measures consistent with the provisions of the CTBT to ensure its faithful implementation and at the same time it firmly opposes the abuse of verification rights by any country, including the use of espionage or human intelligence, to infringe upon the sovereignty of China and impair its legitimate security interests in violation of universally recognized principles of international law.4 . In the present day world where huge nuclear arsenals and nuclear deterrence policy based on the first use of nuclear weapons still exist, the supreme national interests of China demand that it ensure the safety, reliability and effectiveness of its nuclear weapons before the goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons is achieved.5. The Chinese Government and people are ready to continue to work together with governments and peoples of other countries for an early realization of the lofty goal of the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons.ColombiaDeclaration:The Government of Colombia declares that the financial obligations arising from the present instrument shall not become payable until the Treaty has entered into force and shall not have retroactive effect.GermanyDeclaration made upon signature:It is the understanding of the German Government that nothing in this Treaty shall ever be interpreted or applied in such a way as to prejudice or prevent research into and development of controlled thermonuclear fusion and its economic use.GuatemalaDeclaration:The Government of Guatemala declares that the financial obligations arising from the present Treaty will only become payable as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty and shall not have retroactive effect.Holy SeeDeclaration upon signature:"The Holy See is convinced that in the sphere of nuclear weapons, the banning of tests and of the further development of these weapons, disarmament and non-proliferation are closely linked and must be achieved as quickly as possible under effective international controls.Furthermore, the Holy See understands that these are steps towards a general and total disarmament which the international community as a whole should accomplish without delay."Declaration upon ratification:"The Holy See, in ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 and signed by the Holy See on 24 September of the same year, wishes to repeat what was said when it added its signature: "The Holy See is convinced that in the sphere of nuclear weapons, the banning of tests and of the further development of these weapons, disarmament and non-proliferation are closely linked and must be achieved as quickly as possible under effective international controls".In conformity with the nature and particular condition of Vatican City State, the Holy See, by this ratification, seeks to advance the genuine promotion of a culture of peace based upon the primacy of law and of respect for human life. At the beginning of the third millennium, the implementation of a system of comprehensive and complete disarmament, capable of fostering a climate of trust, cooperation and respect between all States, represents an indispensable aspect of the concrete realization of a culture of life and peace.In lending moral support to the CTBT through this solemn act of ratification, the Holy See encourages the whole International Community, which is aware of the various challenges standing in the way of nuclear disarmament, to intensify its efforts to ensure the implementation of the said Treaty."Iran (Islamic Republic of)<superscript>3</superscript>Declarations upon signature:"1. The Islamic Republic of Iran considers that the Treaty does not meet nuclear disarmament criteria as originally intended. We had not perceived a CTBT only as non-proliferation instrument. The Treaty must have terminated fully and comprehensive further development of nuclear weapons. However, the Treaty bans explosions, thus limiting such development only in certain aspects, while leaving others avenues wide open. We see no other way for the CTBT to be meaningful, however, unless it is considered as a step towards a phased program for nuclear disarmament with specific time frames through negotiations on a consecutive series of subsequent treaties.2. On National Technical Means, based on the deliberation that took place on the issues in the relevant Ad Hoc Committee of the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, we interpret the text as according a complementary role to them and reiterate that they should be phased out with further development of the International Monitoring System. National Technical Means should not be interpreted to include information received from espionage and human intelligence.3. The inclusion of Israel in the MESA grouping constitutes a politically-motivated aberration from UN practice and is thus objectionable. We express our strong reservation on the matter and believe that it will impede the implementation of the Treaty, as the confrontation of the States in this regional group would make it tremendously difficult for the Executive Council to form. The Conference of the States Parties would eventually be compelled to find a way to redress this problem."Lebanon<right>3 October 2005</right>Declaration:"We express our reservation on the inclusion of Israel in MESA grouping, which constitutes an aberration from UN practice and it will impede the implementation of the treaty.We believe strongly that the confrontation of the states in this regional group would make it tremendously difficult to form the Executive Council. The Conference of the States Parties would be compelled to find a way to redress this problem."1See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.2On behalf of the Kindom in Europe, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.3On 29 January 1997, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Israel the following communication with regard to the declaration contained in paragraph 3:"Israel considers that Iran's declaration on this matter has no legal basis and is entirely motivated by political reasons extraneous to the CTBT.The Iranian declaration attempts to undermine the implementation of the treaty and is incompatible with both the Treaty and its spirit, as well as with the U.N. Charter principle of sovereign equality of all states.Israel, by geography, is part of the Middle-East region, and no objection will change this.Israel calls upon other signatories of the CTBT to express their rejection of the Iranian reservation to Israel's inclusion in the MESA Geographic region, as well as the threat contained therein."