CHAPTER XXIII
LAW OF TREATIES
3Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International OrganizationsVienna, 21 March 1986see article 85 which reads as follows : "1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or accession by States or by Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia. 2. For each State or for Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia, ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the condition specified in paragraph 1 has been fulfilled, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after deposit by such State or by Namibia of its instrument of ratification or accession. 3. For each international organization depositing an instrument relating to an act of formal confirmation or an instrument of accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after such deposit, or at the date the Convention enters into force pursuant to paragraph 1, whichever is later.".Signatories39Parties441Doc. <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_CONF.129_15-E.pdf" target="_blank">A/CONF.129/15</a>.The Convention was open for signature by all States, Namibia and international organizations invited to the Conference, until 31 December 1986 at the Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Austria, and subsequently, until 30 June 1987, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
ParticipantSignature, Succession to signature(d)Ratification, Accession(a), Formal confirmation(c), Succession(d)Albania 8 May 2014 aArgentina12 Feb 1987 17 Aug 1990 Australia16 Jun 1993 aAustria21 Mar 1986 26 Aug 1987 Belarus30 Dec 1999 aBelgium 9 Jun 1987 1 Sep 1992 Benin24 Jun 1987 Bosnia and Herzegovina<superscript>2</superscript>12 Jan 1994 dBrazil21 Mar 1986 Bulgaria10 Mar 1988 aBurkina Faso21 Mar 1986 Colombia24 Jul 2009 aCôte d'Ivoire21 Mar 1986 Council of Europe11 May 1987 Croatia11 Apr 1994 aCyprus29 Jun 1987 5 Nov 1991 Czech Republic<superscript>3</superscript>22 Feb 1993 dDemocratic Republic of the Congo21 Mar 1986 Denmark 8 Jun 1987 26 Jul 1994 Egypt21 Mar 1986 Estonia21 Oct 1991 aFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations29 Jun 1987 Gabon 5 Nov 2004 aGermany<superscript>4</superscript>27 Apr 1987 20 Jun 1991 Greece15 Jul 1986 28 Jan 1992 Hungary17 Aug 1988 aInternational Atomic Energy Agency26 Apr 2001 aInternational Civil Aviation Organization29 Jun 1987 24 Dec 2001 cInternational Criminal Police Organization 3 Jan 2001 aInternational Labour Organisation31 Mar 1987 31 Jul 2000 cInternational Maritime Organization30 Jun 1987 14 Feb 2000 cInternational Telecommunication Union29 Jun 1987 Italy17 Dec 1986 20 Jun 1991 Japan24 Apr 1987 Liberia16 Sep 2005 aLiechtenstein 8 Feb 1990 aMalawi30 Jun 1987 Malta26 Sep 2012 aMexico21 Mar 1986 10 Mar 1988 Montenegro<superscript>5</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dMorocco21 Mar 1986 Netherlands<superscript>6</superscript>12 Jun 1987 18 Sep 1997 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2 Jun 2000 aPreparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization11 Jun 2002 aRepublic of Korea29 Jun 1987 Republic of Moldova26 Jan 1993 aSenegal 9 Jul 1986 6 Aug 1987 Serbia<superscript>2</superscript>12 Mar 2001 dSlovakia<superscript>3</superscript>28 May 1993 dSpain24 Jul 1990 aState of Palestine22 Mar 2018 aSudan21 Mar 1986 Sweden18 Jun 1987 10 Feb 1988 Switzerland 7 May 1990 aUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland24 Feb 1987 20 Jun 1991 United Nations30 Jan 1987 21 Dec 1998 cUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization23 Jun 1987 United Nations Industrial Development Organization 4 Mar 2002 aUnited States of America26 Jun 1987 Universal Postal Union19 Oct 2004 aUruguay10 Mar 1999 aWorld Health Organization30 Apr 1987 22 Jun 2000 cWorld Intellectual Property Organization24 Oct 2000 aWorld Meteorological Organization30 Jun 1987 Zambia21 Mar 1986
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made upon ratification,accession or formal confirmation.)Belgium<superscript>7</superscript><right>21 June 1993</right>Reservation:The Belgian State will not be bound by articles 53 and 64 of the Convention with regard to any party which, in formulating a reservation concerning article 66 (2), objects to the settlement procedure established by this article.Bulgaria<superscript>8</superscript>Declaration on article 2, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph j:The People's Republic of Bulgaria considers that the practice of an individual International Organization may be considered as established according to article 2, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph j, only when it has been adopted as such by all Member States of this Organization.Declaration on article 62, paragraph 2:The People's Republic of Bulgaria considers that the term "Boundary" as it is used in the text of article 62, paragraph 2, means State Boundary and it may be established only by States.Declaration on article 74, paragraph 3:The People's Republic of Bulgaria considers that a treaty which an International Organization is a party to, may establish obligations for Members States of this Organization only if the Member States have expressed their consent in advance in each individual case.ColombiaReservations:(a) With respect to articles 11 to 17, and in accordance with article 46, Colombia specifies that Colombia’s plenipotentiary representative can express the consent of the Colombian State only after the treaty has been approved by the Congress and reviewed by the Constitutional Court.(b) With respect to article 25, Colombia specifies that only treaties relating to economic or commercial matters that have been agreed upon within the framework of international organizations which so provide may be applied provisionally by Colombia without prior approval of the Congress and review by the Constitutional Court.Interpretative declaration:(c) With respect to article 27, paragraph 1, Colombia specifies that it accepts that a State may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for its failure to perform the treaty, on the understanding that this rule does not exclude judicial control of the constitutionality of laws adopting treaties.”DenmarkReservation:... Where parties formulate reservations or partial reserva- tions with respect to the provisions of article 66 of the Convention concerning the obligatory settlement of certain disputes, Denmark does not consider itself bound by the provisions of Part V of the Convention whereby the procedures for settlement set forth in article 66 shall not be applied if reservations have been formulated by other parties.GermanyDeclarations:1. The Federal Republic of Germany presumes that the juris- diction of the International Court of Justice brought about by consent of States outside the [said] Convention cannot be excluded by invoking the provisions of article 66, paragraph 4 of the Convention.2. The Federal Republic of Germany interprets "measures taken in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations" as referred to in article 76 of the [said] Convention to mean decisions taken in future by the United Nations Security Council in conformity with Chapter VII of the Charter on the maintenance of international peace and security.Hungary<superscript>9</superscript>NetherlandsDeclaration:"The Kingdom of the Netherlands does not regard the provisions of article 66 (b), (c) and (d) of the Convention as providing `some other method of peaceful settlement' within the meaning of the declaration of the Kingdom of the Netherlands accepting as compulsory the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice which was deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 1 August 1956;The Kingdom of the Netherlands is of the opinion that the provisions regarding the settlement of disputes, as laid down in article 66 of the Convention, are an important part of the Convention and that they cannot be separated from the substantive rules with which they are connected."SenegalUpon signature:In signing this Convention, [the Government of Senegal de- clares] that the completion of this formality shall not be inter- preted in so far as Senegal is concerned as a recognition of the right of international organizations to appear as parties before the International Court of Justice.Objections(Unless otherwise indicated, the objections were made uponratification, accession or formal confirmation.)GermanyThe Federal Republic of Germany rejects the reservation made by the Republic of Bulgaria with regard to article 66, paragraph 2 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations as incompatible with the object and purpose of the said Convention. In this connection it wishes to point out that the Federal Republic of Germany considers articles 53 and 64 of the Convention, on the one hand, and article 66, paragraph 2, on the other, to be inextricably linked.1International organizations, which are party to the Convention, are not counted for entry into force purposes, pursuant to article 85 of the Convention.2The former Yugoslavia had signed the Convention on 21 March 1986. See also notes 1 under “Bosnia and Herzegovina”, “Croatia”, “Slovenia, “former Yugoslavia” and “Yugoslavia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.3Czechoslovakia had acceded to the Convention on 19 October 1990 (See, <a href="https://../doc/Publication/CN/1990/CN.293.1990-Eng.pdf target="_blank">C.N.293.1990.TREATIES-4 (Depositary Notification)</a>. See also note 1 under “Czech Republic” and note 1 under “Slovakia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.4See note 2 under “Germany” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.5See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.6For the Kingdom in Europe, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.7On 18 February 1993, the Government of Belgium notified the Secretary-General that its instrument of ratification should have speci- fied that the said ratification was made subject to the said reservation. None of the Contracting Parties to the Agreement having notified the Secretary-General of an objection either to the deposit itself or to the procedure envisaged, within a period of 90 days from the date of its circulation (23 March 1993), the reservation is deemed to have been accepted.8In a notification received on 6 May 1994, the Government of Bulgaria notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the reservation made upon accession with regard to article 66, which reads as follows:The People's Republic of Bulgaria does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 66, paragraph 2 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations under the terms of which each party to a dispute concerning the interpretation and application of article 53 and 64 may submit it to the International Court of Justice for a decision. The Government of the People's Republic of Bulgaria declares that submission of such dispute to the International Court of Justice requires the preliminary consent of all parties to it in each individual case.9In a communication received by the Secretary-General on 8 December 1989, the Government of Hungary notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw its reservation to the Convention with regard to article 66 which reads as follows:The Hungarian People's Republic does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 2 (a) of article 66 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations and declares that submission of a dispute concerning the application or the interpretation of articles 53 or 64 to the International Court of Justice for a decision or submission of a dispute concerning the application or the interpretation of any articles in Part V of the Convention to a conciliation commission for consideration shall be subject to the consent of all the parties to the dispute and the conciliators constituting the conciliation commission shall have been nominated exclusively with the common consent of the parties to the dispute.