CHAPTER X
INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
10United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of GoodsVienna, 11 April 19801 January 1988, in accordance with article 99(1).1 January 1988, No. 25567Signatories18Parties94United Nations, <i>Treaty Series </i>, vol. 1489, p. 3<superscript>1</superscript> depositary notification C.N.862.1998.TREATIES-5 of 19 February 1999 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic Arabic text); C.N.233.2000.TREATIES-2 of 27 April 2000 (rectification of the Russian authentic text); and C.N.1075.2000.TREATIES-5 of 1 December 2000 [rectification of the original of the Convention (Arabic authentic text)].<superscript>1</superscript>The Convention was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, held at Vienna from 10 March to 11 April 1980. The Conference was convened by the General Assembly of the United Nations, in accordance with its resolution <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_33_93-E.pdf" target="_blank">33/93</a><superscript>2</superscript> of 16 December 1978, adopted on the basis of chapter II of the report of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on the work of its eleventh session (1978). The Convention was opened for signature at the concluding meeting of the Conference on 11 April 1980 and remained open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 30 September 1981.
ParticipantSignatureRatification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a), Succession(d)Albania13 May 2009 aArgentina19 Jul 1983 aArmenia 2 Dec 2008 aAustralia17 Mar 1988 aAustria11 Apr 1980 29 Dec 1987 Azerbaijan 3 May 2016 aBahrain25 Sep 2013 aBelarus 9 Oct 1989 aBelgium31 Oct 1996 aBenin29 Jul 2011 aBosnia and Herzegovina<superscript>3</superscript>12 Jan 1994 dBrazil 4 Mar 2013 aBulgaria 9 Jul 1990 aBurundi 4 Sep 1998 aCameroon11 Oct 2017 aCanada23 Apr 1991 aChile11 Apr 1980 7 Feb 1990 China30 Sep 1981 11 Dec 1986 AAColombia10 Jul 2001 aCongo11 Jun 2014 aCosta Rica12 Jul 2017 aCroatia<superscript>3</superscript> 8 Jun 1998 dCuba 2 Nov 1994 aCyprus 7 Mar 2005 aCzech Republic<superscript>4</superscript>30 Sep 1993 dDemocratic People's Republic of Korea27 Mar 2019 aDenmark26 May 1981 14 Feb 1989 Dominican Republic 7 Jun 2010 aEcuador27 Jan 1992 aEgypt 6 Dec 1982 aEl Salvador27 Nov 2006 aEstonia20 Sep 1993 aFiji 7 Jun 2017 aFinland26 May 1981 15 Dec 1987 France27 Aug 1981 6 Aug 1982 AAGabon15 Dec 2004 aGeorgia16 Aug 1994 aGermany<superscript>5,6,7</superscript>26 May 1981 21 Dec 1989 Ghana11 Apr 1980 Greece12 Jan 1998 aGuatemala11 Dec 2019 aGuinea23 Jan 1991 aGuyana25 Sep 2014 aHonduras10 Oct 2002 aHungary11 Apr 1980 16 Jun 1983 Iceland10 May 2001 aIraq 5 Mar 1990 aIsrael22 Jan 2002 aItaly30 Sep 1981 11 Dec 1986 Japan 1 Jul 2008 aKyrgyzstan11 May 1999 aLao People's Democratic Republic24 Sep 2019 aLatvia31 Jul 1997 aLebanon21 Nov 2008 aLesotho18 Jun 1981 18 Jun 1981 Liberia16 Sep 2005 aLiechtenstein30 Apr 2019 aLithuania18 Jan 1995 aLuxembourg30 Jan 1997 aMadagascar24 Sep 2014 aMauritania20 Aug 1999 aMexico29 Dec 1987 aMongolia31 Dec 1997 aMontenegro<superscript>8</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dNetherlands<superscript>6,9</superscript>29 May 1981 13 Dec 1990 ANew Zealand<superscript>10</superscript>22 Sep 1994 aNorth Macedonia<superscript>3</superscript>22 Nov 2006 dNorway26 May 1981 20 Jul 1988 Paraguay13 Jan 2006 aPeru25 Mar 1999 aPoland28 Sep 1981 19 May 1995 Portugal23 Sep 2020 aRepublic of Korea17 Feb 2004 aRepublic of Moldova13 Oct 1994 aRomania22 May 1991 aRussian Federation16 Aug 1990 aSan Marino22 Feb 2012 aSerbia<superscript>3</superscript>12 Mar 2001 dSingapore11 Apr 1980 16 Feb 1995 Slovakia<superscript>4</superscript>28 May 1993 dSlovenia<superscript>3</superscript> 7 Jan 1994 dSpain24 Jul 1990 aSt. Vincent and the Grenadines12 Sep 2000 aState of Palestine29 Dec 2017 aSweden26 May 1981 15 Dec 1987 Switzerland21 Feb 1990 aSyrian Arab Republic19 Oct 1982 aTurkey 7 Jul 2010 aUganda12 Feb 1992 aUkraine 3 Jan 1990 aUnited States of America31 Aug 1981 11 Dec 1986 Uruguay25 Jan 1999 aUzbekistan27 Nov 1996 aVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)28 Sep 1981 Viet Nam18 Dec 2015 aZambia 6 Jun 1986 a
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession.)ArgentinaDeclaration:In accordance with articles 96 and 12 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, any provisions of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Argentine Republic.ArmeniaDeclarations:“1. Pursuant to Article 95 of the Convention, the Republic of Armenia declares that it will not apply the Article 1, subparagraph (1) (b) of the Convention to the parties that declare not to be bound by the Article 1, subparagraph (1) (b) of the Convention.2. Pursuant to Articles 12 and 96 of the Convention, the Republic of Armenia declares that any provision of Article 11, Article 29 or Part II of this Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Armenia.”AzerbaijanDeclaration<right>3 May 2016</right>“The Republic of Azerbaijan declares that it is unable to guarantee the implementation of the provisions of the Convention in its territories occupied by the Republic of Armenia (the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan and its seven districts surrounding that region), until the liberation of those territories from the occupation and complete elimination of the consequences of that occupation ...”BelarusDeclaration:The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, in accordance with articles 12 and 96 of the Convention declares that any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of this Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of inten- tion to be made in any form other than in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Byelorussian SSR.Canada<superscript>11</superscript>ChileDeclaration:The State of Chile declares, in accordance with articles 12 and 96 of the Convention, that any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by mutual agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any other form than in writing, does not apply where any party has its place of business in Chile.China<superscript>12</superscript>Declaration:The People's Republic of China does not consider itself to be bound by subparagraph (b) of paragraph 1 of article 1.Czech Republic<superscript>4</superscript>Democratic People's Republic of KoreaReservation:“The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea declares, in accordance with Article 96 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, that any provision of Articles 11 and 29 of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement to be made in any form other than in writing, will not apply where any party has its place of business in DPRK’s territory.”Denmark<superscript>13</superscript>Declarations:"..."2) under paragraph 1 of article 93 that the Convention shall not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland,"3) under paragraph 1 cf. paragraph 3 of article 94 that the Convention shall not apply to contracts of sale where one of the parties has his place of business in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden and the other party has his place of business in another of the said states,"4) under paragraph 2 of article 94 that the Convention is not to apply to contracts of sale where one of the parties has his place of business in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden and the other party has his place of business in Iceland."<right>2 July 2012</right>"[...] In addition to the previous declaration made under Article 94 Denmark declares, in respect of Iceland in accordance with paragraph 1, in respect of Finland and Sweden in accordance with paragraph 1 cf. paragraph 3 and in repect of Norway in accordance with paragraph 2 that the Convention will not apply to the formation of contracts of sale where the parties have their places of business in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Sweden or Norway."EstoniaDeclaration:"In accordance with articles 12 and 96 of [the said Conven- tion] any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other that in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Estonia."<right>9 March 2004</right><i>"In accordance with Article 97, paragraph 4 of the said Convention, the Republic of Estonia declares that the Republic of Estonia withdraws the declaration made in the said instrument of ratification, which prescribed that: "in accordance with Articles 12 and 96 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods any provision of Article 11, Article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Estonia." </i>In consequence any provision of Article 11, Article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing does apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Estonia."Finland<superscript>14</superscript>Upon ratification:"With reference to Article 94, in respect of Sweden in accordance with paragraph (1) and otherwise in accordance with paragraph (2) the Convention will not apply to contracts of sale where the parties have their places of business in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland or Norway."<right>28 November 2011</right>“In addition to the previous declaration made under Article 94 the Republic of Finland declares, in respect of Iceland in accordance with paragraph (1) and otherwise in accordance with paragraph (2), that the Convention will not apply to the formation of contracts of sale where the parties have their places of business in Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Norway or Sweden.”Germany<superscript>7</superscript>The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany holds the view that Parties to the Convention that have made a declaration under article 95 of the Convention are not considered Contracting States within the meaning of subparagraph (a) (b) of article 1 of the Convention. Accordingly, there is no obligation to apply - and the Federal Republic of Germany assumes no obligation to apply - this provision when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a Party that has made a declaration to the effect that it will not be bound by subparagraph (1) (b) of article 1 of the Convention. Subject to this observation the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany makes no declaration under article 95 of the Convention.Hungary<superscript>15</superscript>Iceland<right>12 March 2003</right>Declaration:"Pursuant to article 94, paragraph 1, the Convention will not apply to contracts of sale or to their formation where the parties have their places of business in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden."Lao People's Democratic Republic<right>24 September 2019</right>Reservation:“In accordance with article 95 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), the Government of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic declares that it will not be bound by subparagraph (1) (b) of article 1 of the Convention and will apply the Convention to Contracts of Sale of Goods only between those parties whose place of business are in different States when the States are Contracting States.”Latvia<superscript>16</superscript>Lithuania<superscript>17</superscript>Norway<superscript>18</superscript>Reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratifica tion:[ <i>Same reservation, mutatis mutandis, as the one made by Finland. </i>]Upon ratification:[ <i>Same reservation, mutatis mutandis, as theone made by Finland. </i>]<right>14 April 2014</right>“[…] in addition to the previous declaration made [on] 20 July 1988 under Article 94, Norway declares, in respect of Iceland in accordance with paragraph 1 and otherwise in accordance with paragraph 1 cf. paragraph 3, that the Convention will not apply to the formation of contracts of sale where the parties have their places of business in Norway, Denmark, Finland, Iceland or Sweden.”ParaguayDeclaration:The Republic of Paraguay declares, in accordance with articles 12 and 96 of the Convention, that any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement, [or] any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing shall not apply where any party has his place of business in Paraguay.Russian FederationDeclaration:[Same declaration, <i>mutatis mutandis </i>, as theone made by Belarus.]SingaporeDeclaration:"In accordance with article 95 of the said Convention, the Government of the Republic of Singapore will not be bound by sub-paragraph (1) (b) of article 1 of the Convention and will apply the Convention to the Contracts of Sale of Goods only between those parties whose places of business are in different States when the States are Contracting States."Slovakia<superscript>4</superscript>St. Vincent and the GrenadinesDeclaration:“The Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines declares that Saint Vincent and the Grenadines will not be bound by subparagraph  1  (b) of Article 1 of the Convention.”Sweden<superscript>19</superscript>Déclarations:[ <i>Same reservation, mutatis mutandis, as the one made by Finland. </i>]<right>25 May 2012</right>“In addition to the previous declaration made under Article 94 Sweden declares, in respect of Iceland in accordance with paragraph 1, in respect of Finland in accordance with paragraph 1 cf. paragraph 3 and otherwise in accordance with paragraph 2, that the Convention will not apply to the formation of contracts of sale where the parties have their places of business in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland or Norway.”UkraineDeclaration:[ <i>Same declaration, mutatis mutandis, as the one made by Belarus. </i>]United States of America"Pursuant to article 95 the United States will not be bound by subparagraph (1) (b) of Article 1".Viet NamDeclaration:“In accordance with Article 12 and Article 96 of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, done at Vienna on 11 April 1980, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam makes the following declaration:Any provision of Article 11, Article 29, or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in Viet Nam.”Declarations under article 93 of the Convention(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession.)AustraliaDeclaration:"The Convention shall apply to all Australian States and mainland territories and to all external territories except the territories of Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the Ashmore and Cartier Islands."CanadaDeclarations:"The Government of Canada declares, in accordance with article 93 of the Convention, that the Convention will extend to Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and the Northwest Territories."<right>9 April 1992</right>"The Convention shall also extend to Quebec and Saskatchewan." <right>29 June 1992</right> "The Convention applies also to the Territory of the Yukon." <right>18 June 2003</right> "The Government of Canada declares, in accordance with Article 93 of the Convention, that in addition to the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Saskatchewan, as well as the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory, the Convention shall extend to the Territory of Nunavut. The Government of Canada also declares that the declaration made at the time of its accession to the Convention on April 23, 1991, the declaration deposited on April 9, 1992, the declaration deposited on June 29, 1992 and the declaration deposited on July 31, 1992, remain in effect." 1The English text of the Convention has been published by the Government of the United States of America in the publication "Federal Register" of Monday 2 March 1987, volume 52, No. 40, pages 6262 to 6280 together with various comments and information by the Department of State.2<i>Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-third Session, Supplement No. 45 </i> (A/33/45), p. 217.3The former Yugoslavia had signed and ratified the Convention on 11 April 1980 and 27 March 1985, respectively. See also note 1 under “Bosnia and Herzegovina", "Croatia", "former Yugoslavia", "Slovenia", "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and "Yugoslavia" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.4Czechoslovakia had signed and ratified the Convention on 1 September 1981 and 5 March 1990, respectively, with the following reservation: Pursuant to article 95, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic declares that it shall not consider itself bound by the provision of article 1, paragraph 1, item b), of the Convention. On 22 November 2017, the Government of the Czech Republic notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the reservation with respect to article 95 made by Czechoslovakia upon ratification. See also note 1 under “Czech Republic” and note 1 under “Slovakia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.5See note 1 under “Germany” regarding Berlin (West) in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.6On 1 January 1990 and on 1 January 1991, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands, respectively, denounced the Convention relating to a Uniform Law on the International Sale of Goods and the Convention relating to a Uniform Law on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, both done at The Hague on 1 July 1964. These denunciations took effect 12 months later, and the present Convention therefore entered into force for the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands on 1 January 1991 and on 1 January 1992, respectively, in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 6 of article 99.7The German Democratic Republic had signed and ratified the Convention on 13 August 1981 and 23 February 1989, respectively. See also note 2 under “Germany” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.8See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.9For the Kingdom in Europe and Aruba.10With a declaration of non-application to the Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau.11On 31 July 1992, the Government of Canada, by virtue of article  97 (4) of the Convention, notified the Secretary-General of its decision to withdraw the following declaration made upon accession by virtue of article 95, which read as follows:"The Government of Canada also declares, in accordance with article 95 of the Convention, that, with respect to British Columbia, it will not be bound by article 1.1 b) of the Convention."12 The Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General on 16 January 2013 of its decision to withdraw the following declaration made upon approval with respect to Article 11 as well as the provisions in the Convention relating to the content of Article 11: The People's Republic of China does not consider itself to be bound by subparagraph (b) of paragraph 1 of article 1 and article 11 as well as the provisions in the Convention relating to the content of article 11.13 On 2 July 2012, Denmark notified the Secretary-General that it withdrew the following declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification: "1) under paragraph 1 of Article 92 [...] Denmark will not be bound by Part II of the Convention." According the four Nordic countries directly concerned (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden), this withdrawal should be considered as a unilateral declaration which took effect in accordance with the second sentence of article 97 (3), on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary, i.e. on 1 February 2013.14 On 28 November 2011, Finland notified the Secretary-General that it withdrew the following declaration under article 92 made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification: Finland will not be bound by Part II of the Convention. According to the four Nordic countries directly concerned (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden), this withdrawal should be considered as a unilateral declaration which took effect in accordance with the second sentence of article 97 (3), on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary, i.e. on 1 June 2012.15 On 6 July 2015, the Government of Hungary notified the Secretary-General of the withdrawal of the following declaration made upon ratification: "[The Hungarian People's Republic] considers the General Conditions of Delivery of Goods between Organizations of the Member Countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance/GCD CMEA, 1968/1975, version of 1979/ to be subject to the provisions of article 90 of the Convention; "[The Hungarian People's Republic] states, in accordance with articles 12 and 96 of the Convention, that any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Hungarian People's Republic."16 On 13 November 2012, the Government of Latvia notified the Secretary-General of the withdrawal of the following declaration made upon accession: "In accordance with article 96 of the [said Convention], the Republic of Latvia delcares that any provision of article 11, article 29, or Part II of this Convention, that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in writing, does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Latvia."17 On 1 November 2013, the Government of Lithuania notified the Secretary-General of the withdrawal of the following declaration made upon accession with respect to articles 11, 29 and to Part II of the Convention: "In accordance with articles 96 and 12 of the said Convention, the Republic of Lithuania declares that any provisions of article 11, article 29 or Part II of the Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other indication of intention to be made in any form other than in written does not apply where any party has his place of business in the Republic of Lithuania."18 On 14 April 2014, Norway notified the Secretary-General that it withdrew the following declaration under article 92 made upon ratification: According to the four Nordic countries directly concerned (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden), this withdrawal should be considered as a unilateral declaration which shall take effect in accordance with the second sentence of article 97 (3), on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary, i.e. on 1 November 2014.19 On 25 May 2012, Sweden notified the Secretary-General that it withdrew the following declaration under article 92 made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification: Sweden will not be bound by Part II of the Convention. According the four Nordic countries directly concerned (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden), this withdrawal should be considered as a unilateral declaration which took effect in accordance with the second sentence of article 97 (3), on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary, i.e. on 1 December 2012.