CHAPTER VI
NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES
18Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, as amended by the Protocol amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961New York, 8 August 19758 August 1975, in accordance with article 18 of the Protocol of 25 March 1972.8 August 1975, No. 14152Parties1861United Nations, <i>Treaty Series </i>, vol. 976, p. 105. C.N.194.2009.TREATIES-2 of 6 April 2009 (Proposal of Amendments by Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e)); C.N.474.2009.TREATIES-3 of 30 July 2009 (Proposal of Amendments by Bolivia (Plurinational State of) to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e); Council Document E/2009/L.31 dated 24 July 2009; C.N.829.2009.TREATIES-4 of 19 November 2009 (Proposal of Amendments by Bolivia (Plurinational State of) to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e)); Council Document E/2009/116 dated 9 October 2009; C.N.103.2010.TREATIES-1 of 24 February 2010 (Proposal of Amendments by Bolivia (Plurinational State of) to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e)); Council Document E/2010/7 dated 3 February 2010; C.N.3.2011.TREATIES-1 of 18 January 2011 (Proposal of Amendments by the Plurinational State of Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e); C.N.8.2011.TREATIES-2 of 18 January 2011 (Proposal of Amendments by the Plurinational State of Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e); C.N.15.2011.TREATIES-3 of 25 February 2011 (Proposal of Amendments by the Plurinational State of Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e): United States of America) and Council document E/2011/47 of 19 January 2011; C.N.24.2011.TREATIES-4 of 25 February 2011 (Proposal of Amendments by the Plurinational State of Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e): Sweden) and Council document E/2011/48 of 21 January 2011; C.N.26.2011.TREATIES-5 of 25 February 2011 (Proposal of Amendments by the Plurinational State of Bolivia to Article 49, paragraphs 1 (c) and 2 (e): United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and Council document E/2011/49 of 21 January 2011; C.N.33.2011.TREATIES-6 of 25 February 2011 (Proposal of AThe text of the Convention was established by the Secretary-General in accordance with article 22 of the Protocol.
ParticipantParticipation in the Convention by virtue of ratification, accession or succession to the Protocol of 25 March 1972 or to the 1961 Convention after the entry into force of the ProtocolAccession(a), Succession(d), RatificationAfghanistan19 Feb 2015 Albania14 Aug 2001 aAlgeria26 Feb 2003 Andorra13 Feb 2007 aAngola26 Oct 2005 Antigua and Barbuda 5 Apr 1993 Argentina16 Nov 1973 Armenia13 Sep 1993 aAustralia22 Nov 1972 Austria 1 Feb 1978 Azerbaijan11 Jan 1999 Bahamas23 Nov 1976 Bahrain 7 Feb 1990 aBangladesh 9 May 1980 Barbados21 Jun 1976 Belarus13 Sep 2001 Belgium13 Jun 1984 Belize18 Dec 2001 aBenin 6 Nov 1973 Bhutan24 Aug 2005 aBolivia (Plurinational State of)<superscript>2</superscript>11 Jan 2013 aBosnia and Herzegovina<superscript>3</superscript> 1 Sep 1993 dBotswana27 Dec 1984 Brazil16 May 1973 Brunei Darussalam25 Nov 1987 Bulgaria18 Jul 1996 Burkina Faso 2 Jun 1992 aBurundi18 Feb 1993 aCabo Verde24 May 1990 aCambodia 7 Jul 2005 Cameroon30 May 1974 Canada 5 Aug 1976 Central African Republic15 Oct 2001 aChile19 Dec 1975 China<superscript>1,4</superscript>23 Aug 1985 aColombia 3 Mar 1975 Comoros 1 Mar 2000 aCongo 3 Mar 2004 Costa Rica14 Feb 1973 Côte d'Ivoire28 Feb 1973 Croatia<superscript>3</superscript>26 Jul 1993 Cuba14 Dec 1989 Cyprus30 Nov 1973 Czech Republic<superscript>5</superscript>30 Dec 1993 dDemocratic People's Republic of Korea19 Mar 2007 Democratic Republic of the Congo15 Jul 1976 Denmark18 Apr 1975 Djibouti22 Feb 2001 Dominica24 Sep 1993 Dominican Republic21 Sep 1993 Ecuador25 Jul 1973 Egypt14 Jan 1974 El Salvador26 Feb 1998 Eritrea30 Jan 2002 Estonia 5 Jul 1996 aEswatini18 Oct 1995 aEthiopia11 Oct 1994 Fiji21 Nov 1973 Finland12 Jan 1973 France 4 Sep 1975 Gabon14 Oct 1981 aGambia23 Apr 1996 Georgia27 Mar 2000 aGermany<superscript>6</superscript>20 Feb 1975 Ghana10 Apr 1990 aGreece12 Jul 1985 Grenada19 Aug 1998 aGuatemala 9 Dec 1975 Guinea27 Dec 1990 aGuinea-Bissau27 Oct 1995 Guyana15 Jul 2002 Haiti29 Jan 1973 Holy See 7 Jan 1976 Honduras 8 Aug 1979 Hungary12 Nov 1987 Iceland18 Dec 1974 India14 Dec 1978 Indonesia 3 Sep 1976 Iran (Islamic Republic of)18 Dec 2001 Iraq25 Sep 1978 Ireland16 Dec 1980 Israel 1 Feb 1974 Italy14 Apr 1975 Jamaica 6 Oct 1989 Japan27 Sep 1973 Jordan28 Feb 1973 Kazakhstan29 Apr 1997 Kenya 9 Feb 1973 Kuwait 7 Nov 1973 Kyrgyzstan 7 Oct 1994 Lao People's Democratic Republic16 Mar 2009 Latvia16 Jul 1993 Lebanon 5 Mar 1997 Lesotho 4 Nov 1974 Liberia13 Apr 1987 Libya27 Sep 1978 Liechtenstein24 Nov 1999 Lithuania28 Feb 1994 Luxembourg13 Oct 1976 Madagascar20 Jun 1974 Malawi 4 Oct 1973 Malaysia20 Apr 1978 Maldives 7 Sep 2000 aMali31 Oct 1995 Malta22 Feb 1990 aMarshall Islands 9 Aug 1991 Mauritania24 Oct 1989 aMauritius12 Dec 1994 Mexico27 Apr 1977 Micronesia (Federated States of)29 May 1991 Monaco30 Dec 1975 Mongolia 6 May 1991 Montenegro<superscript>7</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dMorocco19 Mar 2002 Mozambique 8 Jun 1998 Myanmar22 Aug 2003 Namibia31 Mar 1998 aNepal29 Jun 1987 aNetherlands29 May 1987 New Zealand<superscript>8</superscript> 7 Jun 1990 Nicaragua15 Feb 2005 Niger28 Dec 1973 Nigeria24 Jun 1981 aNorth Macedonia13 Oct 1993 Norway12 Nov 1973 Oman24 Jul 1987 Pakistan 2 Jul 1999 Palau19 Aug 1998 aPanama19 Oct 1972 Papua New Guinea28 Oct 1980 Paraguay20 Jun 1973 Peru12 Sep 1977 Philippines 7 Jun 1974 Poland 9 Jun 1993 Portugal<superscript>1</superscript>20 Apr 1979 Qatar 3 Oct 1986 aRepublic of Korea25 Jan 1973 Republic of Moldova15 Feb 1995 Romania14 Jan 1974 Russian Federation 3 Jun 1996 Rwanda15 Jul 1981 aSan Marino10 Oct 2000 Sao Tome and Principe20 Jun 1996 Saudi Arabia 7 Nov 1997 aSenegal25 Mar 1974 Serbia<superscript>3</superscript>12 Mar 2001 dSeychelles27 Feb 1992 Sierra Leone 6 Jun 1994 aSingapore 9 Jul 1975 Slovakia<superscript>5</superscript>28 May 1993 dSlovenia<superscript>3</superscript> 6 Jul 1992 dSolomon Islands17 Mar 1982 Somalia 9 Jun 1988 South Africa16 Dec 1975 Spain 4 Jan 1977 Sri Lanka29 Jun 1981 St. Kitts and Nevis 9 May 1994 St. Lucia 5 Jul 1991 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3 Dec 2001 State of Palestine29 Dec 2017 aSudan 5 Jul 1994 Suriname29 Mar 1990 Sweden 5 Dec 1972 Switzerland22 Apr 1996 Syrian Arab Republic 1 Feb 1974 Tajikistan26 Mar 1997 aThailand 9 Jan 1975 Togo10 Nov 1976 Tonga 5 Sep 1973 Trinidad and Tobago23 Jul 1979 Tunisia29 Jun 1976 Turkey20 Jul 2001 Turkmenistan21 Feb 1996 Uganda15 Apr 1988 Ukraine27 Sep 2001 United Arab Emirates17 Feb 1988 aUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<superscript>4</superscript>20 Jun 1978 United Republic of Tanzania25 Mar 1999 aUnited States of America 1 Nov 1972 Uruguay31 Oct 1975 Uzbekistan24 Aug 1995 aVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 4 Dec 1985 Viet Nam 4 Nov 1997 aYemen25 Mar 1996 aZambia13 May 1998 Zimbabwe30 Jul 1993 a
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, accession or succession.)AndorraReservation:The Principality of Andorra does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 2 of article 48 which provide for a mandatory referral to the International Court of Justice of any dispute which cannot be resolved according to the terms of paragraph 1. The Government of Andorra takes the position that for any dispute to be referred to the International Court of Justice for decision the agreement of all the parties to the dispute shall be necessary in each individual case.BahrainReservation:With regard to article 48, paragraph 2:<center> <i>[See chapter VI.16 for the text of the reservation.] </i> </center>Declaration:<i> <center>[See chapter VI.16 for the text of the declaration and the objection thereto.] </center> </i>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)Reservation:The Plurinational State of Bolivia reserves the right to allow in its territory: traditional coca leaf chewing; the consumption and use of the coca leaf in its natural state for cultural and medicinal purposes, such as its use in infusions; and also the cultivation, trade and possession of the coca leaf to the extent necessary for these licit purposes.At the same time, the Plurinational State of Bolivia will continue to take all necessary measures to control the cultivation of coca in order to prevent its abuse and the illicit production of the narcotic drugs which may be extracted from the leaf.China<i> <center>[See chapter VI.16.] </center> </i>Nepal"His Majesty's Government of Nepal in accordance with article 49 paragraph 1 of the said Convention hereby reserves the right to permit temporarily in its territory:i. the quasi-medical use of opium;ii. The use of cannabis, cannabis resin, extracts and tinctures of cannabis for non-medical purposes; andiii. The production and manufacture of and trade in the drugs referred to under (i) and (ii) above."Saudi ArabiaReservation:The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will not be bound by article 48, paragraph 2, of the Convention.Viet Nam<superscript>9</superscript>Reservation:[The Government of Viet Nam declares its reservation to] article 36, paragraph 2, point b on Extradition and article 48, paragraph 2 on Dispute settlement.[See also text of the declarations and reservations made in respect of the unamended Convention (chapter VI.15) and of the amending Protocol of 25 March 1972 (chapter VI.17). Objections (Unless otherwise indicated, the objections were received upon ratification, accession or succession.) Austria<right>16 December 1998</right>With regard to the reservation made by Viet Nam upon accession:“Austria is of the view that the reservation raises doubts as to its compatibility with the object and purpose of the Convention concerned, in particular the fundamental principle that perpetrators of drug-related crime should be brought to justice, regardless of their whereabouts. Non-acceptance of this principle would undermine the effectiveness of the above-mentioned Convention.Austria therefore objects to the reservation. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the above-mentioned Convention between Austria and Viet Nam."Sweden<right>14 December 1998</right>With regard to the reservation made by Viet Nam upon accession:“The Government of Sweden is of the view that the reservation made by the Government of Viet Nam regarding article 36, paragraph 2 subparagraph (b) may raise doubts as to the commitment of Viet Nam to the object and purpose of the Convention....It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.Furthermore, according to the Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties of 23 May 1969, and well-established customary international law, a reservation contrary to the object and purpose of the treaty shall not be permitted.The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid [reservation] by the Government of Viet Nam.[This objection does] not preclude the entry into force of the [Convention] between Viet Nam and Sweden. The [Convention] will thus become operative berween the two States without Viet Nam benefiting from the [reservation].”United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland<right>17 December 1998</right>With regard to the reservation to article 36 (2)(b) made by Viet Nam upon accession:“The United Kingdom is not in a position to accept [the] reservation."The above objection is not however to constitute an obstacle to the entry into force of the said [Convention] as between Vietnam and the United Kingdom.”1On 9 and 15 December 1999, the Secretary-General received communications regarding the status of Macao from China and Portugal (see also note 3 under “China” and note 1 under “Portugal” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume). Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Macao, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention will also apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region.2 The Government of the Plurinational State of Bolivia originally deposited its instrument of accession to the Convention on 23 September 1976. On 29 June 2011, the Government notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to denounce the Convention. In accordance with article 46 (2), the denunciation took effect on 1 January 2012. Following denunciation, the Plurinational State of Bolivia re-acceded to the Convention with a reservation. See C.N.94.2013.TREATIES-VI.18.3The former Yugoslavia had ratified the Protocol on 23 June 1978. See also note 1 under "Bosnia and Herzegovina", "Croatia", "former Yugoslavia", "Slovenia", "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and "Yugoslavia" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.4The Secretary-General received communications regarding the status of Hong Kong from China and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern (see also note 2 under “China” and note 2 under “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume). Upon resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, China notified the Secretary-General that the Convention and Protocol will also apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.In addition, the notification made by China contained the following declaration:The reservation to paragraph 2, article 48 of the said Convention made by the Government of the People's Republic of China will also apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.5Czechoslovakia, by virtue of its accession on 4 June 1991 to the Protocol of 25 March 1972 amending the Single Convention, became as of the date of its accession a participant in the Convention. See also note 1 under “Czech Republic” and note 1 under “Slovakia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.6The German Democratic Republic, by virtue of its accession on 4 October 1988 to the Protocol of 25 March 1972 amending the Single Convention, became as of the date of its accession a participant in the Convention. See also note 2 under “Germany” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.7See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.8Applicable to Niue and Tokelau. See also note 1 under “New Zealand” regarding Tokelau in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.9In a communication received on 15 January 1999, the Government of Finland notified the Secretary-General of the following:"The Government of Finland is of the view that [this reservation] raise[s] doubts as to [its] compatibility with the object and purpose of the [Convenion] concerned, in particular the [reservation] to article 32, paragraph 2, subparagraph b) 1). According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and well-established customary international law, a reservation contrary to the object and purpose of the treaty shall not be permitted.It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become Parties are respected as to their object and purpose by all Parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.The Government of Finland therefore objects to [this reservation] made by the Government of Viet Nam to the [Convention].This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the [Convention] between Viet Nam and Finland. The [Convention] will thus become operative between the two States without Viet Nam benefitting from [this reservation]."