CHAPTER IV
HUMAN RIGHTS
13International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their FamiliesNew York, 18 December 19901 July 2003, in accordance with article 87(1).1 July 2003, No. 39481Signatories39Parties56United Nations, <i>Treaty Series</i>, vol. 2220, p. 3; Doc. <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_45_158-E.pdf" target="_blank">A/RES/45/158</a>.The Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, was adopted by Resolution <a href="/doc/source/docs/A_RES_45_158-E.pdf" target="_blank">A/RES/45/158</a><superscript>1</superscript> of 18 December 1990 at the forty-fifth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The Convention is open for signature by all States in accordance with its article 86 (1).
ParticipantSignature, Succession to signature(d)Ratification, Accession(a), Succession(d)Albania 5 Jun 2007 aAlgeria21 Apr 2005 aArgentina10 Aug 2004 23 Feb 2007 Armenia26 Sep 2013 Azerbaijan11 Jan 1999 aBangladesh 7 Oct 1998 24 Aug 2011 Belize14 Nov 2001 aBenin15 Sep 2005 6 Jul 2018 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)16 Oct 2000 aBosnia and Herzegovina13 Dec 1996 aBurkina Faso16 Nov 2001 26 Nov 2003 Cabo Verde16 Sep 1997 aCambodia27 Sep 2004 Cameroon15 Dec 2009 Chad26 Sep 2012 Chile24 Sep 1993 21 Mar 2005 Colombia24 May 1995 aComoros22 Sep 2000 Congo29 Sep 2008 31 Mar 2017 Ecuador 5 Feb 2002 aEgypt19 Feb 1993 aEl Salvador13 Sep 2002 14 Mar 2003 Fiji19 Aug 2019 aGabon15 Dec 2004 Gambia20 Sep 2017 28 Sep 2018 Ghana 7 Sep 2000 7 Sep 2000 Guatemala 7 Sep 2000 14 Mar 2003 Guinea 7 Sep 2000 aGuinea-Bissau12 Sep 2000 22 Oct 2018 Guyana15 Sep 2005 7 Jul 2010 Haiti 5 Dec 2013 Honduras 9 Aug 2005 aIndonesia22 Sep 2004 31 May 2012 Jamaica25 Sep 2008 25 Sep 2008 Kyrgyzstan29 Sep 2003 aLesotho24 Sep 2004 16 Sep 2005 Liberia22 Sep 2004 Libya18 Jun 2004 aMadagascar24 Sep 2014 13 May 2015 Mali 5 Jun 2003 aMauritania22 Jan 2007 aMexico22 May 1991 8 Mar 1999 Montenegro<superscript>2</superscript>23 Oct 2006 dMorocco15 Aug 1991 21 Jun 1993 Mozambique15 Mar 2012 19 Aug 2013 Nicaragua26 Oct 2005 aNiger18 Mar 2009 aNigeria27 Jul 2009 aPalau20 Sep 2011 Paraguay13 Sep 2000 23 Sep 2008 Peru22 Sep 2004 14 Sep 2005 Philippines15 Nov 1993 5 Jul 1995 Rwanda15 Dec 2008 aSao Tome and Principe 6 Sep 2000 10 Jan 2017 Senegal 9 Jun 1999 aSerbia11 Nov 2004 Seychelles15 Dec 1994 aSierra Leone15 Sep 2000 Sri Lanka11 Mar 1996 aSt. Vincent and the Grenadines29 Oct 2010 aSyrian Arab Republic 2 Jun 2005 aTajikistan 7 Sep 2000 8 Jan 2002 Timor-Leste30 Jan 2004 aTogo15 Nov 2001 16 Dec 2020 Turkey13 Jan 1999 27 Sep 2004 Uganda14 Nov 1995 aUruguay15 Feb 2001 aVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 4 Oct 2011 25 Oct 2016
Declarations and Reservations(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were madeupon ratification, accession or succession.)AlgeriaReservation:The Government of the People's Algerian Democratic Republic does not consider itself bound by article 92, paragraph 1 of this Convention which provides that any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention, that is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration or to the International Court of Justice.The Government of the People's Algerian Democratic Republic considers that any such dispute may be submitted to arbitration only with the agreement of all the parties to the conflict.ArgentinaDeclaration:As provided for in article 92 (2), the Republic of Argentina does not consider itself bound by the provisions of article 92 (1) of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.ChileReservations:The Republic of Chile makes a reservation with respect to the provisions of article 22, paragraph 5, of this Convention which it considers to be inapplicable to Chile.The Republic of Chile will consider the provisions of article 48, paragraph 2, to be fulfilled under the terms of international conventions for the avoidance of double taxation that either have been entered into or will be entered into in the future.ColombiaReservation:Articles 15, 46 and 47 of the [said Convention], which was adopted by means of Act No. 146 of 1994, shall be executed with the understanding that the State of Colombia retains the right to promulgate taxation, exchange and monetary regulations establishing equality of treatment of migrant workers and their families with that of nationals in respect of the import and export of personal and household effects and the transfer of earnings and savings abroad, and in respect of expropriation for reasons of equity and the nullification of ownership of property in the cases envisaged in article 34 of the Political Constitution.Ecuador<right>12 January 2018</right>Declaration under articles 76 and 77:The Government of the Republic of Ecuador recognizes the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families:a) to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the Convention, in accordance with article 76 of the Convention; andb) to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim that their individual rights as established by the Convention have been violated by that State Party, in accordance with the article 77 of the Convention.EgyptReservation concerning article 4:For the purposes of the present Convention the term `members of the family' refers to persons married to migrant workers or having with them a relationship that, according to applicable law, produces effects equivalent to marriage, as well as their dependent children and other dependent persons who are recognized as members of the family by applicable legislation or applicable bilateral or multilateral agreements between the States concerned.Reservation concerning article 18, paragraph 6:When a migrant worker or a member of his or her family has, by a final decision, been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his or her conviction has been reversed or he or she has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partially attributable to that person.El SalvadorDeclarations:The Government of the Republic of El Salvador does not consider itself bound by article 92, paragraph 1, of the Convention. With respect to articles 46, 47, 48 and 61, paragraph 4, governing exemption from import and export duties and taxes in respect of personal and household effects and the right to transfer earnings and savings, the Government of El Salvador wishes to make it clear that the exemption shall apply only after any taxes that the articles in question might incur have been paid. Moreover, the right of workers to transfer their earnings to their State of origin or State of habitual residence may be exercised without restriction, provided that the tax obligations arising in each particular case have been fulfilled. With regard to article 32, transfer of earnings and savings shall include amounts accumulated under retirement social security schemes, whether public or private. The Government of the Republic of El Salvador wishes to reiterate its respect for all universal and regional human rights principles and norms enshrined in international human rights instruments.<right>23 January 2015</right>Declaration under articles 76 and 77... the Government of the Republic of El Salvador recognizes the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another Party is not fulfilling its obligations, as well as communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction, under articles 76 and 77, respectively, of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.FijiReservation:“The Government of the Republic of Fiji declares that it does not consider itself bound by provisions of Article 92(1).”Guatemala<right>11 September 2007</right>Declarations:[Agrees to] recognize the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families to receive and examine communications in which one State Party to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families alleges non-compliance by another State Party with obligations arising under the Convention, as well as to receive and examine communications sent by persons subject to the jurisdiction of a State Party, alleging the violation by that State Party of their individual rights as recognized under the Convention.Guinea-BissauDeclaration regarding article 76 (1):The Republic of Guinea-Bissau recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications by which a Party claims that another Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the above-mentioned Convention.Declaration regarding paragraph 1 of article 92:The Republic of Guinea-Bissau does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of article 92, according to which any dispute between Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention which is not settled by negotiation is subject to arbitration, at the request of one of them and if the Parties fail to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any of them may submit the dispute to the International Court of Justice.Mexico<superscript>3</superscript>Interpretative declaration:Upon ratifying the [Convention], the Government of the United Mexican States reaffirms its political will to ensure international protection of the rights of all migrant workers, in accordance with this international instrument. all the provisions of this Convention will be applied in conformity with its national legislation.<right>15 September 2008</right>Declaration under article 77:The United Mexican States recognizes as fully binding the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, established by the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families adopted in New York on 18 December 1990.In accordance with article 77 of the Convention, the United Mexican States declares that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim that the United Mexican States has violated their individual rights as established by the Convention.MoroccoReservation:The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco does not consider itself bound by article 92, paragraph 1 of this Convention which provides that any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration.The Government of the Kingdom of Morocco considers that any such dispute may be submitted to arbitration only with the agreement of all the parties to the conflict.NicaraguaDeclaration and reservation:DeclarationThe Republic of Nicaragua, onacceding to this Convention, agrees to apply it in accordance with its domestic laws.Reservations:The Republic of Nicaragua, in the exercise of its sovereignty, does not allow foreigners to enjoy political rights; this is embodied in articles 27 and 182 of the Constitution.Article 91 of the Convention establishes the possibility of formulating reservations at the time of signature, ratification or accession. Consequently, by virtue of the provisions of article 42, paragraph 3, of this Convention, the Republic of Nicaragua will not grant political rights to migratory workers owing to the express prohibition contained in article 27, paragraph 2, of its Constitution, which states:"Foreigners have the same rights and obligations as Nicaraguans, with the exception of political rights and others established by law; they may not intervene in the political affairs of the country."The Republic of Nicaragua considers that this reservation is not incompatible with the object and purpose of the Convention.Sri Lanka<superscript>4</superscript>Declarations:Article 8 (2):"The right of non-Sri Lankans to enter and remain in Sri Lanka shall be subject to existing visa regulations.Article 49:Resident visas to expatriate workers are allowed in respect of identified professions where there is a dearth of qualified personnel. Existing visa regulations do not permit migrant workers either to change their professions or the institutions in which they have been authorised to work, which is the basis on which the visa is issued.Article 54:Protection against dismissal, quantum of remuneration, period of employment, etc., are governed by the terms of individual contracts entered into between the worker and the organisation which employs him. A visa issued to an expatriate worker under the visa regulations is limited to a pre-identified job assignment."Syrian Arab RepublicDeclaration:.....accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to the said Convention thereof by its Government does not, in any way, imply recognition of Israel, nor shall it lead to any such dealing with the latter as are governed by the provisions of the Convention.TurkeyDeclarations:“A) The declaration regarding Article 15:The restrictions by the related Turkish laws regarding acquisition of immovable property by the foreigners are preserved....B) The reservation regarding Article 40:The Turkish Law on Trade Unions allows only the Turkish citizens to form trade unions in Turkey."C) The declaration regarding Article 45:The stipulations of the paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the Article 45 will be implemented in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Constitution and the related Laws.D) The declaration regarding Article 46:The implementation of the Article 46 will be made in accordance with the national laws.E) The declaration regarding Articles 76 and 77:Turkey will recognize the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families at a later time."UgandaReservation:Article 18:"The Republic of Uganda cannot guarantee at all times to provide free legal assistance in accordance with the provisions of article 18 paragraph 3(d)."Uruguay<right> 13 April 2012</right>Declaration under article 77On behalf of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, I have the honour to inform you that the Government of Uruguay has decided to recognize, pursuant to article 77 of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the competence of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim that their individual rights as established by the above-mentioned international instrument have been violated by the Uruguayan State.Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Declaration:With regard to the provisions of article 26, paragraph 1, of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela considers that the right to join freely any trade union, contained in subparagraph (b), applies exclusively to migrant workers.Considering the provisions of article 92, paragraph 2, of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela declares that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of said article. Consequently, it does not consider itself bound to resort to arbitration as a means of dispute settlement, and does not recognize the binding jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.Mexico<right>26 October 2017</right>With regard to the declaration made by Venezuela upon ratification:After analyzing the declaration made by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela regarding the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, the Government of the United Mexican States has reached the conclusion that the declaration in fact constitutes a reservation.This reservation, which is designed to exclude the legal effects of article 26, paragraph 1, of the Convention, is contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention and, particularly, to the right of members of the families of migrant workers to join freely any trade union or association, and therefore contravenes the provisions of article 91, paragraph 2, of the Convention and article 19 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.This objection does not prevent the entry into force of the Convention between the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the United Mexican States. Consequently, the Convention will apply between the two States without the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela being able to avail itself of the above-mentioned reservation.1<i>Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-fifth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/45/49) </i>, p. 261.2See note 1 under "Montenegro" in the "Historical Information" section in the front matter of this volume.3 On 11 July 2014, the Government of Mexico notified the Secretary-General of the withdrawal of the reservation to article 22 paragraph 4 made upon ratification. The reservation which has been withdrawn read as follows: The Government of the United Mexican States makes an express reservation with regard to article 22, paragraph 4, of this Convention, insofar as it refers to the application of article 33 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States and article 125 of the General Population Act.4On 16 August 2016, the Government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka notified the Secretary-General of the withdrawal of the reservation to article 29 made upon accession. The reservation which has been withdrawn read as follows: “According to the citizenship Act No. 18 of 1948, citizenship rights flow from the father and in the event a child is born out of wedlock, from the mother. A child will be deemed to be a citizen of Sri Lanka if he and his father were born in Sri Lanka before 1.11.49 or if at the time of his birth the father was a Sri Lankan.”