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STATUS AS AT : 19-04-2014 05:02:56 EDT
CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
7 .a Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Kyoto, 11 December 1997
Entry into force
:
16 February 2005, in accordance with article 25(1)in accordance with article 25 (3) which reads as follows: "For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Protocol or accedes thereto after the conditions set out in paragraph 1 above for entry into force have been fulfilled, this Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification acceptance, approval or accession.".
Registration :
16 February 2005, No. 30822
Status :
Signatories : 83. Parties : 192. 1
Text :
United Nations, Treaty Series , vol. 2303, p. 148; depositary notifications C.N.101.2004.TREATIES-1 of 11 February 2004 [Proposed corrections to the original texts of the Protocol (Arabic and French versions)] and C.N.439.2004.TREATIES-4 of 12 May 2004 [Corrections to the original texts of the Protocol (Arabic and French versions)]; C.N.380.2007.TREATIES-5 of 17 April 2007 (Adoption of an amendment to Annex B of the Protocol).
Note :
The Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“the Convention”), held at Kyoto (Japan) from 1 to 11 December 1997. The Protocol shall be open for signature by States and regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to the Convention at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 in accordance with its article 24 (1).
Participant
Signature
Ratification, Acceptance(A), Accession(a), Approval(AA)
Afghanistan
  25 Mar 2013 a
Albania
   1 Apr 2005 a
Algeria
  16 Feb 2005 a
Angola
   8 May 2007 a
Antigua and Barbuda
16 Mar 1998
 3 Nov 1998
Argentina
16 Mar 1998
28 Sep 2001
Armenia
  25 Apr 2003 a
Australia
29 Apr 1998
12 Dec 2007
Austria
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Azerbaijan
  28 Sep 2000 a
Bahamas
   9 Apr 1999 a
Bahrain
  31 Jan 2006 a
Bangladesh
  22 Oct 2001 a
Barbados
   7 Aug 2000 a
Belarus
  26 Aug 2005 a
Belgium
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Belize
  26 Sep 2003 a
Benin
  25 Feb 2002 a
Bhutan
  26 Aug 2002 a
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
 9 Jul 1998
30 Nov 1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina
  16 Apr 2007 a
Botswana
   8 Aug 2003 a
Brazil
29 Apr 1998
23 Aug 2002
Brunei Darussalam
  20 Aug 2009 a
Bulgaria
18 Sep 1998
15 Aug 2002
Burkina Faso
  31 Mar 2005 a
Burundi
  18 Oct 2001 a
Cabo Verde
  10 Feb 2006 a
Cambodia
  22 Aug 2002 a
Cameroon
  28 Aug 2002 a
Canada 2
[29 Apr 1998 ]
[17 Dec 2002 ]
Central African Republic
  18 Mar 2008 a
Chad
  18 Aug 2009 a
Chile
17 Jun 1998
26 Aug 2002
China 3
29 May 1998
30 Aug 2002 AA
Colombia
  30 Nov 2001 a
Comoros
  10 Apr 2008 a
Congo
  12 Feb 2007 a
Cook Islands
16 Sep 1998
27 Aug 2001
Costa Rica
27 Apr 1998
 9 Aug 2002
Côte d'Ivoire
  23 Apr 2007 a
Croatia
11 Mar 1999
30 May 2007
Cuba
15 Mar 1999
30 Apr 2002
Cyprus
  16 Jul 1999 a
Czech Republic
23 Nov 1998
15 Nov 2001 AA
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  27 Apr 2005 a
Democratic Republic of the Congo
  23 Mar 2005 a
Denmark 4
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Djibouti
  12 Mar 2002 a
Dominica
  25 Jan 2005 a
Dominican Republic
  12 Feb 2002 a
Ecuador
15 Jan 1999
13 Jan 2000
Egypt
15 Mar 1999
12 Jan 2005
El Salvador
 8 Jun 1998
30 Nov 1998
Equatorial Guinea
  16 Aug 2000 a
Eritrea
  28 Jul 2005 a
Estonia
 3 Dec 1998
14 Oct 2002
Ethiopia
  14 Apr 2005 a
European Union
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002 AA
Fiji
17 Sep 1998
17 Sep 1998
Finland
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
France
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002 AA
Gabon
  12 Dec 2006 a
Gambia
   1 Jun 2001 a
Georgia
  16 Jun 1999 a
Germany
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Ghana
  30 May 2003 a
Greece
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Grenada
   6 Aug 2002 a
Guatemala
10 Jul 1998
 5 Oct 1999
Guinea
   7 Sep 2000 a
Guinea-Bissau
  18 Nov 2005 a
Guyana
   5 Aug 2003 a
Haiti
   6 Jul 2005 a
Honduras
25 Feb 1999
19 Jul 2000
Hungary
  21 Aug 2002 a
Iceland
  23 May 2002 a
India
  26 Aug 2002 a
Indonesia
13 Jul 1998
 3 Dec 2004
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  22 Aug 2005 a
Iraq
  28 Jul 2009 a
Ireland
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Israel
16 Dec 1998
15 Mar 2004
Italy
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Jamaica
  28 Jun 1999 a
Japan
28 Apr 1998
 4 Jun 2002 A
Jordan
  17 Jan 2003 a
Kazakhstan
12 Mar 1999
19 Jun 2009
Kenya
  25 Feb 2005 a
Kiribati
   7 Sep 2000 a
Kuwait
  11 Mar 2005 a
Kyrgyzstan
  13 May 2003 a
Lao People's Democratic Republic
   6 Feb 2003 a
Latvia
14 Dec 1998
 5 Jul 2002
Lebanon
  13 Nov 2006 a
Lesotho
   6 Sep 2000 a
Liberia
   5 Nov 2002 a
Libya
  24 Aug 2006 a
Liechtenstein
29 Jun 1998
 3 Dec 2004
Lithuania
21 Sep 1998
 3 Jan 2003
Luxembourg
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Madagascar
  24 Sep 2003 a
Malawi
  26 Oct 2001 a
Malaysia
12 Mar 1999
 4 Sep 2002
Maldives
16 Mar 1998
30 Dec 1998
Mali
27 Jan 1999
28 Mar 2002
Malta
17 Apr 1998
11 Nov 2001
Marshall Islands
17 Mar 1998
11 Aug 2003
Mauritania
  22 Jul 2005 a
Mauritius
   9 May 2001 a
Mexico
 9 Jun 1998
 7 Sep 2000
Micronesia (Federated States of)
17 Mar 1998
21 Jun 1999
Monaco
29 Apr 1998
27 Feb 2006
Mongolia
  15 Dec 1999 a
Montenegro
   4 Jun 2007 a
Morocco
  25 Jan 2002 a
Mozambique
  18 Jan 2005 a
Myanmar
  13 Aug 2003 a
Namibia
   4 Sep 2003 a
Nauru
  16 Aug 2001 a
Nepal
  16 Sep 2005 a
Netherlands 5
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002 A
New Zealand 6
22 May 1998
19 Dec 2002
Nicaragua
 7 Jul 1998
18 Nov 1999
Niger
23 Oct 1998
30 Sep 2004
Nigeria
  10 Dec 2004 a
Niue
 8 Dec 1998
 6 May 1999
Norway
29 Apr 1998
30 May 2002
Oman
  19 Jan 2005 a
Pakistan
  11 Jan 2005 a
Palau
  10 Dec 1999 a
Panama
 8 Jun 1998
 5 Mar 1999
Papua New Guinea
 2 Mar 1999
28 Mar 2002
Paraguay
25 Aug 1998
27 Aug 1999
Peru
13 Nov 1998
12 Sep 2002
Philippines
15 Apr 1998
20 Nov 2003
Poland
15 Jul 1998
13 Dec 2002
Portugal
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002 AA
Qatar
  11 Jan 2005 a
Republic of Korea
25 Sep 1998
 8 Nov 2002
Republic of Moldova
  22 Apr 2003 a
Romania
 5 Jan 1999
19 Mar 2001
Russian Federation
11 Mar 1999
18 Nov 2004
Rwanda
  22 Jul 2004 a
Samoa
16 Mar 1998
27 Nov 2000
San Marino
  28 Apr 2010 a
Sao Tome and Principe
  25 Apr 2008 a
Saudi Arabia
  31 Jan 2005 a
Senegal
  20 Jul 2001 a
Serbia
  19 Oct 2007 a
Seychelles
20 Mar 1998
22 Jul 2002
Sierra Leone
  10 Nov 2006 a
Singapore
  12 Apr 2006 a
Slovakia
26 Feb 1999
31 May 2002
Slovenia
21 Oct 1998
 2 Aug 2002
Solomon Islands
29 Sep 1998
13 Mar 2003
Somalia
  26 Jul 2010 a
South Africa
  31 Jul 2002 a
Spain
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Sri Lanka
   3 Sep 2002 a
St. Kitts and Nevis
   8 Apr 2008 a
St. Lucia
16 Mar 1998
20 Aug 2003
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
19 Mar 1998
31 Dec 2004
Sudan
   2 Nov 2004 a
Suriname
  25 Sep 2006 a
Swaziland
  13 Jan 2006 a
Sweden
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
Switzerland
16 Mar 1998
 9 Jul 2003
Syrian Arab Republic
  27 Jan 2006 a
Tajikistan
  29 Dec 2008 a
Thailand
 2 Feb 1999
28 Aug 2002
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  18 Nov 2004 a
Timor-Leste
  14 Oct 2008 a
Togo
   2 Jul 2004 a
Tonga
  14 Jan 2008 a
Trinidad and Tobago
 7 Jan 1999
28 Jan 1999
Tunisia
  22 Jan 2003 a
Turkey
  28 May 2009 a
Turkmenistan
28 Sep 1998
11 Jan 1999
Tuvalu
16 Nov 1998
16 Nov 1998
Uganda
  25 Mar 2002 a
Ukraine
15 Mar 1999
12 Apr 2004
United Arab Emirates
  26 Jan 2005 a
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 7, 8
29 Apr 1998
31 May 2002
United Republic of Tanzania
  26 Aug 2002 a
United States of America
12 Nov 1998
 
Uruguay
29 Jul 1998
 5 Feb 2001
Uzbekistan
20 Nov 1998
12 Oct 1999
Vanuatu
  17 Jul 2001 a
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
  18 Feb 2005 a
Viet Nam
 3 Dec 1998
25 Sep 2002
Yemen
  15 Sep 2004 a
Zambia
 5 Aug 1998
 7 Jul 2006
Zimbabwe
  30 Jun 2009 a
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made
upon ratification, accession, acceptance or approval.)
Cook Islands

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that signature and subsequent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.
       In this regard, the Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligation in article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."

European Union

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       “The European Community and its Member States will fulfil their respective commitments under article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol jointly in accordance with the provisions of article 4.”

Upon approval:
       Declaration by the European Community made in accordance with article 24 (3) of the Kyoto Protocol
       "The following States are at present members of the European Community:  the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
       The European Community declares that, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular article 175 (1) thereof, it is competent to enter into international agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of the following objectives:
       -   preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;
       -   protecting human health;
       -   prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;
       -   promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or world wide environmental problems.
       The European Community declares that its quantified emission reduction commitment under the Protocol will be fulfilled through action by the Community and its Member States within the respective competence of each and that it has already adopted legal instruments, binding on its Member States, covering matters governed by the Protocol.
       The European Community will on a regular basis provide information on relevant Community legal instruments within the framework of the supplementary information incorporated in its national communication submitted under art12 of the Convention for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with its commitments under the Protocol in accordance with article 7 (2) thereof and the guidelines thereunder."

France

Upon signature:

Interpretative declaration:
       The French Republic reserves the right, in ratifying the [said Protocol], to exclude its Overseas Territories from the scope of the Protocol.

Upon approval:
       The ratification by the French Republic of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 should be interpreted in the context of the commitment assumed under article 4 of the Protocol by the European Community, from which it is indissociable.  The ratification does not, therefore, apply to the Territories of the French Republic to which the Treaty establishing the European Community is not applicable.
       Nonetheless, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 6, of the Protocol, the French Republic shall, in the event of failure to achieve the total combined level of emission reductions, remain individually responsible for its own level of emissions.

Ireland

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The European Community and the Member States, including Ireland, will fulfil their respective commitments under article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol in accordance with the provisions of article 4."

Kiribati

Declaration:
       "The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that accession to the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of the climate change and that no provision in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law."

Nauru

Declarations:
       “... The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change; ...
       ... The Government of the Republic of Nauru further declares that, in the light of the best available scientific information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions of reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent the dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system;
       ... [The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares] that no provisions in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law[.]

Niue

Upon signature:

Declaration:
       "The Government of Niue declares its understanding that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provisions in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law.
       In this regard, the Government of Niue further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."

Russian Federation

Statement:
       The Russian Federation proceeds from the assumption that the commitments of the Russian Federation under the Protocol will have serious consequences for its social and economic development.  Therefore, the decision on ratification was taken following a thorough analysis of all factors, inter alia, the importance of the Protocol for the promotion of international cooperation, and taking into account that the Protocol can enter into force only if the Russian Federation ratifies it.
       The Protocol establishes for each of the Parties that have signed it quantified reductions of greenhouse gas emissions to atmosphere for the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012.
       The commitments of the Parties to the Protocol on quantified reductions of greenhouse gas emissions to atmosphere for the second and subsequent commitment periods of the Protocol, that is after 2012, will be established through negotiations of the Parties to the Protocol scheduled to start in 2005.  On the outcome of these negotiations the Russian Federation will take a decision on its participation in the Protocol in the second and subsequent commitment periods.

Syrian Arab Republic

Declaration:
       The accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to this Protocol shall in no way imply its recognition of Israel or entail its entry into any dealings with Israel in the matters governed by the provisions thereof.

End Note
1.For the purpose of entry into force of the [Convention/Protocol] , any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of that Organization.
2.In accordance with article 27 (2) of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Government of Canada notified the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol as from the date indicated hereinafter:

3

Participant:Date of notification:Date of effect:
Canada15 Dec 201115 Dec 2012

3.In a communication received on 30 August 2002, the Government of the People’s Republic of China informed the Secretary-General of the following:

In accordance with article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1990 and article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China of 1993, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall provisionally not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

Further, in a communication received on 8 April 2003, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following:

"In accordance with the provisions of Article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1990, the Government of the People's Republic of China decides that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change continues to be implemented in the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.  The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall not apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China until the Government of China notifies otherwise."

In a communication received on 14 January 2008, the Government of the Government of the People’s Republic of China notified the Secretary-General of the following:

In accordance with Article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, the Government of the People’s Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change shall apply to the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.

4.With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands.
5.For the Kingdom in Europe.
6.With the following declaration:

".....consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory."

7.By a communication received on 27 March 2007, the Government of Argentina notified the Secretary-General of the following:

The Argentine Republic objects to the extension of the territorial application to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 with respect to the Malvinas Islands, which was notified by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Depositary of the Convention on 7 March 2007.

The Argentine Republic reaffirms its sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime spaces, which are an integral part of its national territory, and recalls that the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, which recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to  resolve peacefully and definitively the pending problems between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

8.On 4 April 2006, the Government of the United Kingdom informed the Secretary-General that the Protocol shall apply to the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. On 2 January 2007: in respect of Gibraltar. On 7 March 2007: in respect of Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and the Bailiwick of Jersey.