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STATUS AS AT : 19-04-2014 08:00:38 EDT
CHAPTER XXVII
ENVIRONMENT
1 .c Protocol to the 1979 Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution concerning the control of emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes
Sofia, 31 October 1988
Entry into force
:
14 February 1991, in accordance with article 15(1).
Registration :
14 February 1991, No. 27874
Status :
Signatories : 25. Parties : 35
Text :
United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1593, p. 287; Depositary notification C.N.252.1988.TREATIES-1 of 6 December 1988.
Note :
The Protocol was drawn up within the framework of the Economic Commission for Europe and was adopted on 31 October 1988 by the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.  It was open for signature at Sofia from 1 to 4 November 1988 and subsequently, at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York until 5 May 1989.
Participant
Signature
Ratification, Acceptance(A), Approval(AA), Accession(a), Succession(d)
Albania
  16 Jun 2009 a
Austria
 1 Nov 1988
15 Jan 1990
Belarus
 1 Nov 1988
 8 Jun 1989 A
Belgium
 1 Nov 1988
 8 Nov 2000
Bulgaria
 1 Nov 1988
30 Mar 1989
Canada
 1 Nov 1988
25 Jan 1991
Croatia
   3 Mar 2008 a
Cyprus
   2 Sep 2004 a
Czech Republic 1
  30 Sep 1993 d
Denmark 2
 1 Nov 1988
 1 Mar 1993 A
Estonia
   7 Mar 2000 a
European Union
  17 Dec 1993 a
Finland
 1 Nov 1988
 1 Feb 1990
France
 1 Nov 1988
20 Jul 1989 AA
Germany 3
 1 Nov 1988
16 Nov 1990
Greece
 1 Nov 1988
29 Apr 1998
Hungary
 3 May 1989
12 Nov 1991 AA
Ireland
 1 May 1989
17 Oct 1994
Italy
 1 Nov 1988
19 May 1992
Liechtenstein
 1 Nov 1988
24 Mar 1994
Lithuania
  26 May 2006 a
Luxembourg
 1 Nov 1988
 4 Oct 1990
Netherlands 4
 1 Nov 1988
11 Oct 1989 A
Norway
 1 Nov 1988
11 Oct 1989
Poland
 1 Nov 1988
23 Nov 2011
Russian Federation
 1 Nov 1988
21 Jun 1989 A
Slovakia 1
  28 May 1993 d
Slovenia
   5 Jan 2006 a
Spain
 1 Nov 1988
 4 Dec 1990
Sweden
 1 Nov 1988
27 Jul 1990
Switzerland
 1 Nov 1988
18 Sep 1990
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  10 Mar 2010 a
Ukraine
 1 Nov 1988
24 Jul 1989 A
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 5
 1 Nov 1988
15 Oct 1990
United States of America
 1 Nov 1988
13 Jul 1989 A
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were made
upon ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession.)
United States of America

Upon signature:

Statement:
       "In accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the protocol, the Government of the United States of America specifies 1978 as the applicable calendar year for determining measures to control and/or reduce its national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes.
       The Government of the United States of America believes that there must be a follow-on protocol to establish a control obligation based on scientific, technical and economic factors, including consideration of the protocol's effect on the innovative control technologies program of the United States.  If such a protocol is not adopted by 1996, the United States of America will consider withdrawal from this protocol.
       The Government of the United States of America understands that nations will have the flexibility to meet the overall requirements of the protocol through the most effective means."

End Note
1.Czechoslovakia had signed and approved the Protocol on 1 November 1988 and 17 August 1990, respectively. See also note 1 under “Czech Republic” and note 1 under “Slovakia” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.
2.With a declaration of non-application to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
3.The German Democratic Republic had signed the Protocol on 1 November 1988.

See also note 2 under “Germany” in the “Historical Information” section in the front matter of this volume.

4.For the Kingdom in Europe.
5.The instrument specifies that the said Protocol is ratified in respect of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in the island of Cyprus.