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STATUS AS AT : 23-04-2014 08:12:57 EDT
CHAPTER XXI
LAW OF THE SEA
7 . Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks
New York, 4 August 1995
Entry into force
:
11 December 2001, in accordance with article 40(1).
Registration :
11 December 2001, No. 37924
Status :
Signatories : 59. Parties : 81
Text :
United Nations,  Treaty Series , vol. 2167, p. 3; and depositary notification C.N.99.1996.TREATIES-4 of 7 April 1996 (procès-verbal of rectification of the authentic Arabic text).
Note :
The above Agreement was adopted on 4 August 1995 at New York, by the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. In accordance with its article 37, the Agreement will be open for signature at United Nations Headquarters, from 4 December 1995 until and including 4 December 1996 by all States and the other entities referred to in article 305 (1) (a), (c), (d), (e) and (f) of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982.
Participant
Signature
Accession(a), Ratification
Argentina
 4 Dec 1995
 
Australia
 4 Dec 1995
23 Dec 1999
Austria
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Bahamas
  16 Jan 1997 a
Bangladesh
 4 Dec 1995
 5 Nov 2012
Barbados
  22 Sep 2000 a
Belgium
 3 Oct 1996
19 Dec 2003
Belize
 4 Dec 1995
14 Jul 2005
Brazil
 4 Dec 1995
 8 Mar 2000
Bulgaria
  13 Dec 2006 a
Burkina Faso
15 Oct 1996
 
Canada
 4 Dec 1995
 3 Aug 1999
China
 6 Nov 1996
 
Cook Islands
   1 Apr 1999 a
Costa Rica
  18 Jun 2001 a
Côte d'Ivoire
24 Jan 1996
 
Croatia
  10 Sep 2013 a
Cyprus
  25 Sep 2002 a
Czech Republic
  19 Mar 2007 a
Denmark
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Egypt
 5 Dec 1995
 
Estonia
   7 Aug 2006 a
European Union
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Fiji
 4 Dec 1995
12 Dec 1996
Finland
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
France
 4 Dec 1996
19 Dec 2003
Gabon
 7 Oct 1996
 
Germany
28 Aug 1996
19 Dec 2003
Greece
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Guinea
  16 Sep 2005 a
Guinea-Bissau
 4 Dec 1995
 
Hungary
  16 May 2008 a
Iceland
 4 Dec 1995
14 Feb 1997
India
  19 Aug 2003 a
Indonesia
 4 Dec 1995
28 Sep 2009
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  17 Apr 1998 a
Ireland
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Israel
 4 Dec 1995
 
Italy 1
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Jamaica
 4 Dec 1995
 
Japan
19 Nov 1996
 7 Aug 2006
Kenya
  13 Jul 2004 a
Kiribati
  15 Sep 2005 a
Latvia
   5 Feb 2007 a
Liberia
  16 Sep 2005 a
Lithuania
   1 Mar 2007 a
Luxembourg 2
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Maldives
 8 Oct 1996
30 Dec 1998
Malta
  11 Nov 2001 a
Marshall Islands
 4 Dec 1995
19 Mar 2003
Mauritania
21 Dec 1995
 
Mauritius
  25 Mar 1997 a
Micronesia (Federated States of)
 4 Dec 1995
23 May 1997
Monaco
   9 Jun 1999 a
Morocco
 4 Dec 1995
19 Sep 2012
Mozambique
  10 Dec 2008 a
Namibia
19 Apr 1996
 8 Apr 1998
Nauru
  10 Jan 1997 a
Netherlands 3
28 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
New Zealand 4
 4 Dec 1995
18 Apr 2001
Nigeria
   2 Nov 2009 a
Niue
 4 Dec 1995
11 Oct 2006
Norway
 4 Dec 1995
30 Dec 1996
Oman
  14 May 2008 a
Pakistan
15 Feb 1996
 
Palau
  26 Mar 2008 a
Panama
  16 Dec 2008 a
Papua New Guinea
 4 Dec 1995
 4 Jun 1999
Philippines
30 Aug 1996
 
Poland
  14 Mar 2006 a
Portugal
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Republic of Korea
26 Nov 1996
 1 Feb 2008
Romania
  16 Jul 2007 a
Russian Federation
 4 Dec 1995
 4 Aug 1997
Samoa
 4 Dec 1995
25 Oct 1996
Senegal
 4 Dec 1995
30 Jan 1997
Seychelles
 4 Dec 1996
20 Mar 1998
Slovakia
   6 Nov 2008 a
Slovenia
  15 Jun 2006 a
Solomon Islands
  13 Feb 1997 a
South Africa
  14 Aug 2003 a
Spain
 3 Dec 1996
19 Dec 2003
Sri Lanka
 9 Oct 1996
24 Oct 1996
St. Lucia
12 Dec 1995
 9 Aug 1996
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
  29 Oct 2010 a
Sweden
27 Jun 1996
19 Dec 2003
Tonga
 4 Dec 1995
31 Jul 1996
Trinidad and Tobago
  13 Sep 2006 a
Tuvalu
   2 Feb 2009 a
Uganda
10 Oct 1996
 
Ukraine
 4 Dec 1995
27 Feb 2003
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 5
 4 Dec 1995
10 Dec 2001
United States of America
 4 Dec 1995
21 Aug 1996
Uruguay
16 Jan 1996
10 Sep 1999
Vanuatu
23 Jul 1996
 
Declarations and Reservations
(Unless otherwise indicated, the declarations and reservations were
made upon ratification or accession.)
Austria

Declarations:
       "Declaration concerning the competence of the Republic of Austria with regard to matters governed by the Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
       The Republic of Austria declares upon ratification of the Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks that she has, as a Member State of the European Community, transferred competence to the Community in respect of the following matters governed by the Agreement:
       I.     Matters for which the Community has exclusive competence
       1.    Member States have transferred competence to the Community with regard to the conservation and management of living marine resources.  Hence, in this field, it is for the Community to adopt the relevant rules and regulations (which the Member States enforce) and within its competence to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent organisations.  This competence applies in regard of waters under national fisheries jurisdiction and to the high seas.
       2.    The Community enjoys the regulatory competence granted under international law to the flag State of a vessel to determine the conservation and management measures for marine fisheries resources applicable to vessels flying the flag of Member States and to ensure that Member States adopt provisions allowing for the implementation of the said measures.
       3.    Nevertheless, measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels, for example refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorisations to serve as such, are within the competence of the Member States in accordance with their national legislation.  Measures relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the flag State over its vessels on the high seas, in particular provisions such as those related to the taking and relinquishing of control of fishing vessels by States other than the flag State, international cooperation in respect of enforcement and the recovery of the control of their vessels, are within the competence of the Member States in compliance with Community law.
       II.    Matters for which both the Community and its Member States have competence
       4.    The Community shares competence with its Member States on the following matters governed by this Agreement:  requirements of developing States, scientific research, port-State measures and measures adopted in respect of non-members of regional fisheries organisations and non-Parties to the Agreement.  The following provisions of the Agreement apply both to the Community and to its Member States:
       -   general provisions: (articles 1, 4, and 34 to 50)
       -   dispute settlement:  (Part VIII)."
       Interpretative Declarations by the Republic of Austria with regard to the Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks
       1.   The Republic of Austria understands that the terms ‘geographical particularities', ‘specific characteristics of the sub-region or region', ‘socioeconomic geographical and environment factors', ‘natural characteristics of that sea' or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       2.   The Republic of Austria understands that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, recognised by international law.
       3.    The Republic of Austria understands that the term ‘States whose nationals fish on the highll not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       4.    The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21 (3).  Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       5.    Regarding the application of article 21, the Republic of Austria understands that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions in article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any further authority under the provisions of article 21 over such a vessel.  Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement.  No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag.  In addition, the Republic of Austria considers that the word ‘unlawful' in article 21 (18) of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and in particular, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       6.   The Republic of Austria reiterates that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the United Nations Charter and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. In addition, the Republic of Austria underlines that the use of force as referred to in article 22 constitutes an exceptional measure which must be based on the strictest compliance with the principle of proportionality and that any abuse thereof shall imply the international liability of the inspecting State.  Any case of non-compliance shall be resolved by peaceful means and in accordance wi the applicable dispute-settlement procedures.  Furthermore, the Republic of Austria considers that the relevant terms and conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and subregional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
       7.   The Republic of Austria understands that in the application of the provisions of article 21 (6), (7) and (8), the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case.  Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action."
       Confirmation by the Republic of Austria of the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the implementing of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks
       The Republic of Austria hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the implementing of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks,... :"
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Belgium

Declaration:
       The Government of the Kingdom of Belgium recalls that as a Member of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.
       The Kingdom of Belgium hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 198[2] relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Bulgaria

Declaration:
       "The Republic of Bulgaria declares that the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, with regard to the transfer of competence by the Member States to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, shall be also applicable to the Republic of Bulgaria as from the date of its accession to the European Union."

Canada

Declarations:
       "Pursuant to article 30, paragraph 4 of the Agreement, the Government of Canada declares that it chooses an arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 as the means for the settlement of disputes under Part VIII of the Agreement. In light of article 30, paragraph 1 of the Agreement, the Government of Canada also declares that it does not accept any of the procedures provided for in section 2 of Part XV of the Convention with respect to disputes referred to in article 298, paragraph 1 of the Convention.
       According to article 42 of the Agreement, no reservations or exceptions may be made to the Agreement. A declaration or statement pursuant to article 43 of the Agreement cannot purport to exclude or modify the legal effect of the provisions of the Agreement in their application to the State or entity making it. Consequently, the Government of Canada declares that it does not consider itself bound by declarations or statements pursuant to article 43 of the Agreement that have been made or will be made by other States or by entities described in article 2 (b) of the Agreement and that exclude or modify the legal effect of the provisions of the Agreement in their application to the State or entity making it. Lack of response by the Government of Canada to any declaration or statement shall not be interpreted as tacit acceptance of that declaration or statement. The Government of Canada reserves the right at any time to take a position on any declaration or statement in the manner deemed appropriate."

China

Upon signature:
       Statement:
       "It is the belief of the Government of the People's Republic of China that the [said Agreement] is an important development of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. This Agreement will have a significant impact on the conservation and management of living marine resources, especially fish resources in the high seas as well as on the international cooperation in fishery. Upon signing the Agreement, the Government of the People's Republic of China wish to make the following statement in accordance with article 43 of the Agreement:
       1. About the understanding of paragraph 7 of article 21 of the Agreement: The Government of China is of the view that the enforcement action taken by the inspecting State with the authorization of the flag State involves state sovereignty and national legislation of the States concerned. The authorized enforcement action should be limited to the mode and scope as specified in the authorization by the flag State. Enforcement action by the inspecting State under such circumstances should only be that of executing the authorization of the flag state.
       2. About the understanding of subparagraph (f), paragraph 1 of article 22 of the Agreement: This subparagraph provides that the inspecting State shall ensure that its duly authorized inspectors `avoid the use of force except when and to the degree necessary to ensure the safety of the inspectors and where the inspectors are obstructed in the execution of their duties. The degree of force used shall not exceed that reasonably required in the circumstances'. The understanding of the Chinese Government on this provision is that only when the personal safety of the authorized inspectors whose authorization has been duly verified is endangered  and their normal inspecting activities are obstructed by violence committed by crew members of fishermen of the fishing vessel under inspection, may the inspectors take appropriate compulsory measures necessary to stop such violence. It should be emphasized that the action of force by the inspectors shall only be taken against those crew members or fishermen committing the violence and must never be taken against the vessel as a whole or other crew members or fishermen."

Croatia

Declaration:
       “The Republic of Croatia declares that the declarations made by the European Union upon the ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, with regard to the transfer of competences by the Member States to the European Union in respect of the certain matters governed by the Agreement, after the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union also apply to the Republic of Croatia.”

Czech Republic

12 September 2007


Declarations:
       “As a Member State of the European Community the Czech Republic has transferred its competence for certain matters governed by the Agreement to the European Community. These matters are mentioned in the Declaration of 19 December 2003 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.
       The Czech Republic confirms the interpretative declarations of 19 December 2003 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.”
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Denmark

Declaration:
       "In this respect, the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark recalls that as a Member of the European Community, Denmark has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to this letter.  This Annex also contains interpretative declarations by the European Community and its Member States to the Agreement.
       At the same time, [Denmark] hereby confirms the declarations1 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Estonia

Declarations:
       "- As a Member State of the European Community the Republic of Estonia has transferred its competence for certain matters governed by the Agreement to the European Community. These matters are mentioned in the Declaration of 19 December 2003 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.
       - The Republic of Estonia confirms the interpretative declarations of 19 December 2003 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement."

European Union

Upon signature:

Declaration concerning the competence of the European Community with regard to matters governed by the [said Agreement]
       (Declaration made pursuant to article 47 of the Agreement):
       "1. Article 47(1) of the Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks provides that in cases where an international organization referred to in annex IX, article 1, of the Convention does not have competence over all the matter governed by the Agreement, annex IX of the Convention [with the exception of article 2, first sentence, and article 3(1)] shall apply mutatis mutandis to participation by such international organization in the Agreement.
       2. The current members of the Community are the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
       3. The Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the [said Convention] shall apply, with regard to the competences transferred to the European Community, to the territories in which the Treaty establishing the European Community is applied and under the conditions laid down in that Treaty, in particular article 227 thereof.
       4. This declaration is not applicable in the case of the territories of the Member States in which the said Treaty does not apply and is without prejudice to such acts or positions as may be adopted under the Agreement by the Member States concerned on behalf of and in the interests of those territories.
       I. Matters for which the Community has exclusive competence
       5. The Community points out that its Member States have transferred competence to it with regard to the conservation and management of living marine resources. Hence, in this field, it is for the Community to adopt the relevant rules and regulations (which the Member States enforce) and within its competence to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent organizations.
       This competence applies in regard of waters under national fisheries jurisdiction and to the high seas.
       6. The Community enjoys the regulatory competence granted under international law to the flag State of a vessel to determine the conservation and management measures for marine fisheries resources applicable to vessels flying the flag of Member States and to ensure that Member States adopt provisions allowing for the implementation of the said measures.
       7. Nevertheless, measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels, e.g., refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorizations to serve as such, are within the competence of the Member States in accordance with their national legislation.
       Measures relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the flag State over its vessels on the high seas, in particular provisions such as those related to the taking and relinquishing of control of fishing vessels by States other than the flag State, international cooperation in  respect of enforcement and the recovery of the control of their vessels, are within the competence of the Member States in compliance with Community law.
       II. Matters relating forwhich both the Community and its Member States have competence
       8. The Community shares competence with its Member States on the following matters governed by this Agreement: requirements of developing States, scientific research, port State measures and measures adopted in respect of non-members of regional fisheries organizations and non-Parties to the Agreement.
       The following provisions of the Agreement apply both to the Community and to its Member States:
       -- general provisions: (Articles 1, 4 and 34 to 50)
       -- dispute settlement: (Part VIII)
       Interpretative declarations:
       1. The European Community and its Member States understand that the terms "geographical particularities", "specific characteristics of the sub-region", "socio-economic geographical and environmental factors", "natural characteristics of that sea" or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under International law.
       2. The European Community and its Member States understand that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, as recognized by international law.
       3. The European  Community and its Member States understand that the term "States whose nationals fish on the high seas" shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       4. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21 (3). Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       5. Regarding the application of article 21, the European Community and its Member States understand that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions in article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any other authority under the provisions of article 21 over such vessel.
       Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement. NoState may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag.
       In addition, the European Community and its Member States consider that the word "unlawful" in article 21, paragraph 18 of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and in particular, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       6. The European Community and its Member States reiterate that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the United Nations Charter and the United Nations Law of the Sea.
       Furthermore, the European Community and its Member States consider that the relevant terms and  conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and sub-regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements.
       7. The European Community and its Member States understand that in the application of the provisions of article 21 paragraphs 6, 7 and 8, the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case. Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action."

Upon ratification:
       Declarations:
       “Pursuant to article 4 of Annex IX of the Convention, rendered applicable mutatis mutandis in the context of the Agreement by virtue of its article 47 (1), the European Community accepts the rights and obligations of States under the Agreement in respect of matters relating to which competence has been transferred to it by Member States which are parties to the Agreement."
       Declaration made pursuant to article 47 of the Agreement:
       "1. Article 47 (1) of the Agreement on the implementation of the provis of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks provides that in cases where an international organization referred to in Annex IX, article 1, of the Convention does not have competence over all the matters governed by the Agreement, Annex IX of the Convention (with the exception of article 2, first sentence, and article 3 (1)) shall apply mutatis mutandis to participation by such international organization in the Agreement.
       2. The current members of the Community are the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
       3. The Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks shall apply, with regard to the competences transferred to the European Community, to the territories in which the Treaty establishing the European Community is applied and under the conditions laid down in that Treaty, in particular article 227 thereof.
       4. This declaration is not applicable in the case of the territories of the Member States in which the said Treaty does not apply and is without prejudice to such acts or positions as may be adopted under the Agreement by the Member States concerned on behalf of and in the interests of those territories.
       I.  MATTERS FOR WHICH THE COMMUNITY HAS EXCLUSIVE COMPETENCE
       5. The Community points out that its Member States have transferred competence to it with regard to the conservation and management of living marine resources.  Hence, in this field, it is for the Community to adopt the relevant rules and regulations (which the Member States enforce) and within its competence to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent organizations.  This competence applies in regard of waters under national fisheries jurisdiction and to the high seas.
       6. The Community enjoys the regulatory competence granted under international law to the flag State of a vessel to determine the conservation and management measures for marine fisheries resources applicable to vessels flying the flag of Member States and to ensure that Member States adopt provisions allowing for the implementation of the said measures.
       7. Nevertheless, measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels, e.g., refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorizations to serve as such, are within the competence of the Member States in accordance with their national legislation.
       Measures relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the flag State over its vessels on the high seas, in particular provisions such as those related to the taking and relinquishing of control of fishing vessels by States other than the flag State, international cooperation in respect of enforcement and the recovery of the control of their vessels, are within the competence of the Member States in compliance with Community law.
       II.  MATTERS FOR WHICH BOTH THE COMMUNITY AND ITS MEMBER STATES HAVE COMPETENCE
       8. The Community shares competence with its Member States on the following matters governed by this Agreement:  requirements of developing States, scientific research, port-State measures and measures adopted in respect of non-members of regional fisheries organizations and non-Parties to the Agreement.
       The following provisions of the Agreement apply both to the Community and to its Member States:
       --   general provisions:  (Articles 1, 4 and 34 to 50)
       --   dispute settlement:  (Part VIII)."
       Interpretative declarations deposited by the Community and its Member States upon ratification of the Agreement
       "1. The European Community and its Member States understand that the terms ‘geographical particularities', ‘specific characteristics of the sub-region or region', ‘socio-economic geographical and environmental factors', ‘natural characteristics of that sea' or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       2. The European Community and its Member States understand that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, recognized by international law.
       3. The European Community and its Member States understand that the term ‘States whose nationals fish on the high seas' shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       4. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21 (3).  Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       5. Regarding the application of article 21, the European Community and its Member States understand that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions in article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any further authority under the provisions of article 21 over such a vessel.
       Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement. No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag.
       In addition, the European Commits Member States consider that the word ‘unlawful' in article 21, para 18 of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and in particular, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       6. The European Community and its Member States reiterate that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles ofinternational law, the United Nations Charter and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       In addition, the European Community and its Member States underline that the use of force as referred to in article 22 constitutes an exceptional measure which must be based upon the strictest compliance with the principle of proportionality and that any abuse thereof shall imply the international liability of the inspecting State. Any case of non-compliance shall be resolved by peaceful means and in accordance with the applicable dispute-settlement procedures.
       Furthermore, the European Community and its Member States consider that the relevant terms and conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and subregional fisheries management organizations and arrangements.
       7. The European Community and its Member States understand that in the application of the provisions of article 21, paragraphs 6, 7 and 8, the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case.  Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action."

Finland

Declarations:
       "Finland recalls that, as a Member State of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to the instrument of ratification.
       Finland hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

France

Upon signature

Declarations:
       1. The Government of the French Republic recalls that the requirements for implementing the Agreement must be strictly in conformity with the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       2. The Government of the French Republic hereby declares that the provisions of article 21 and 22 apply only to maritime fishing operations.
       3. These provisions cannot be regarded as capable of being extended to cover vessels engaged in maritime transport under another international instrument, or of being transferred to any instrument not dealing directly with the conservation and management of fisheries resources covered by the Agreement.

Upon ratification:

Declarations
       Declaration :
       In accordance with article 47.1 of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (with two annexes), done at New York on 4 December 1995, of which the United Nations is the depository, and in accordance with article 5.2 of annex IX to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Government of the French Republic hereby declares that, as a member of the European Community, France has transferred competences dealt with in the Agreement to the European Community. These competences are listed in an annex to this declaration.
       The Government of the French Republic also confirms the content of the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]
       Interpretative declarations:
       1. In ratifying the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, the Gnment of the French Republic declares that it considers that the Agreement constitutes an important effort to ensure the long-term conservation and sustainable use of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and to promote international cooperation to that end.
       2. The Government of the French Republic understands that the terms "geographical particularities", "specific characteristics of the subregion or region", "socio-economic, geographical and environmental factors", "natural characteristics of that sea" or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       3. The Government of the French Republic understands that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas recognized by international law.
       4. The Government of the French Republic understands that the term "States whose nationals fish on the high seas" shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       5. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transition period as referred to in article 21, paragraph 3. Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, the States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       6. Regarding the application of article 21 of the Agreement, the Government of the French Republic understands that, when the flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag within the framework of an alleged violation committed on the high seas, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any further authority under the provisions of article 21 over such a vessel. Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures set forth in Part VIII of the Agreement (Peaceful settlement of disputes). No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag for an alleged violation committed on the high seas. In addition, the Government of the French Republic considers that the word "unlawful" in article 21, paragraph 18, of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and, in particular, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       7. The Government of the French Republic reiterates that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the Charter of the United Nations and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       8. In addition, the Government of the French Republic stresses that the use of force as referred to in article 22 constitutes an exceptional measure which must be based on the strictest compliance with the principle of proportionality and that any abuse thereof shall entail the international liability of the inspecting State. Any case of non-compliance must be resolved by peaceful means, in accordance with the applicable dispute-settlement procedures. It considers, moreover, that the relevant conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the applicable principles of international law, within the framework of the appropriate subregional and regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements.
       9. The Government of the French Republic understands that, in the application of the provisions of article 21, paragraphs 6, 7 and 8, the flag State may avail itself of its legal provisions under which the prosecuting authorities have the power to decide whether or not there are grounds for prosecution in the light of all the facts of the case. Decisions by the flag State based on such provisions must not be iterpreted as failure to respond or to take action.
       10. The Government of the French Republic declares that the provisions of articles 21 and 22 apply only to the sole sector of sea fishing.
       11. The Government of the French Republic is of the view that the provisions of articles 21 and 22 could not be considered as liable to be extended to vessels engaged in maritime transport within the framework of another international instrument or to be transposed to any instrument that does not deal directly with the conservation and management of the fish resources dealt with in the Agreement.

Germany

Declaration:
       "The Federal Republic of Germany recalls that as a Member of the European Community, the Federal Republic of Germany has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in Annex I to this declaration.
       The Federal Republic of Germany hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement (see Annex II)."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Greece

Declaration:
       "In this respect, the Government of the Hellenic Republic recalls that as a Member of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to this letter. The Hellenic Republic confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Hungary

20 April 2009


       Declaration:
       “1. The Government of the Republic of Hungary declares that as a Member State of the European Community the Republic of Hungary transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.
       2. The Government of the Republic of Hungary hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community on 19 December 2003 upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
       [See declarations under "European Community".]
       3. The Government of the Republic of Hungary agrees that the expressions such as ‘geographical characteristics’, ‘individual characteristics of the sub-region and region’, ‘socioeconomic, geographical and environmental factors’, ‘natural characteristics of the given sea’, and other similar expressions used in respect of a geographical region do not infringe upon the rights and obligations of
       the States under international law.
       4. The Government of the Republic of Hungary agrees that none of the provisions of this Agreement may be interpreted in a way that is contrary to the principle of the freedom of the high seas as recognized by international law.
       5. The Government of the Republic of Hungary agrees that the expression of ‘the States whose nationals fish on the high seas’ represents new jurisdictional grounds on the basis of the principle of the jurisdiction of the flag State rather than on the basis of the nationality of the persons fishing on the high seas.
       6. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period mentioned in Article 21 (3). After this period, in case of failure to conclude an agreement, the States may proceed only in accordance with the provisions set out in Articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       7. In respect of the application of Article 21, the Government of the Republic of Hungary agrees that if a flag State declares that in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 it intends to exercise its jurisdiction over a fishing vessel flying its flag, then, in accordance with the provisions of Article 21, the authorities of the State inspecting the mentioned vessel may not exercise any further jurisdiction.
       Any dispute in connection with this issue shall be settled in compliance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement. None of the States may initiate a dispute of this nature with the aim to maintain its control over a vessel not flying its flag.
       The Government of the Republic of Hungary holds that the word ‘unlawful’ in Article 21 (18) shall be interpreted in light of the entire Agreement and especially Articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       8. The Government of the Republic of Hungary reiterates that in its relationships it shall refrain from using threat and force in accordance with the general principles of international law, the Charter of the United Nations and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       Furthermore, the Government of the Republic of Hungary emphasizes that under Article 22 the use of force shall mean extraordinary measures which must be based on the strictest observation of the principle of proportionality, and that its abuse shall result in the international liability of the controlling State.
       In each case abuse shall be clarified by peaceful means and in accordance with the procedures relating to the settlement of disputes.
       Furthermore,the Government of Hungary holds that the conditions relating to the boarding and inspection of vessels should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law and in the framework of the appropriate regional and sub-regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
       9. The Government of the Republic of Hungary agrees that in the application of Article 21 (6), (7) and (8) a flag State may rely on the regulations of its legal system under which the criminal prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all facts of the case. The decisions of a flag State based on such regulations may not be interpreted as a failure to respond or take action.”
India

Declaration:
       "The Government of the Republic of India reserves the right to make at the appropriate time the declarations provided for in articles 287 and 298 concerning the settlement of disputes."

Ireland

Declarations:
       "Pursuant to article 47 (1) of the Agreement (applying mutatis mutandis article 5 (2) and 5 (6) of Annex IX of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982), the Government of Ireland hereby declares that as a Member State of the European Community, Ireland has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to this Declaration.
       The Government of Ireland hereby confirms the Declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]
       Annex
       I.    Matters for which the Community has exclusive competence
       1.   As a Member State of the European Community, Ireland recalls that it has transferred competence to the Community with regard to the conservation and management of living marine resources.  Hence, in this field, it is for the Community to adopt the relevant rules and regulations (which the Member States enforce) and within its competence to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent organisations.  This competence applies in regard of waters under national fisheries jurisdiction and to the high seas.
       2.  The Community enjoys the regulatory competence granted under international law to the flag State of a vessel to determine the conservation and management measures for marine fisheries resources applicable to vessels flying the flag of Member States and to ensure that Member States adopt provisions allowing for the implementation of the said measures.
       3.  Nevertheless, measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels, for example refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorisations to serve as such, are within the competence of the Member States in accordance with their national legislation.  Measures relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the flag State over its vessels on the high seas, in particular prions such as those related to the taking and relinquishing of control of fishing vessels by States other than the flag State, international cooperation in respect of enforcement and the recovery of the control of their vessels, are within the competence of the Member States in compliance with Community law.
       II.   Matters for which both the Community and its Member States have competence
       4.  The Community shares competence with its Member States on the following matters governed by this Agreement:  requirements of developing States, scientific research, port-State measures and measures adopted in respect of non-members of regional fisheries organisations and non-Parties to the Agreement.  The following provisions of the Agreement apply both to the Community and to its Member States:
       -   general provisions: (articles 1, 4, and 34 to 50)
       -   dispute settlement:  (Part VIII)."

Italy

Declaration:
       "..., the Government of Italy recalls that as a Member of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to this letter.  Italy confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Latvia

12 April 2007


       "Pursuant to Article 47 (1) of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (applying mutatis mutandis Article 5 (2) and 5 (6) of the Annex IX of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982), the Republic of Latvia recalls that as a Member of the European Community the Republic of Latvia has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.
       The Republic of Latvia hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks."

Luxembourg

Declaration:
       ... [As a ] member of the European Community, Luxembourg has transferred competence with regard to the matters governed by this Agreement to the European Community.
       [Luxembourg has] the honour to confirm, ... , the declaration concerning the competence of the European Community with regard to all the matters governed by the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, included in annex B, as well as the delcarations made by the European Community regarding the ratification of the aforementioned Agreement, included in annex C.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Malta

Declaration:
       "... in terms of article 43 of the Agreement, the Government of Malta, enters the following declaration:
       1.       In the view of the Malta Government, the requirements of implementing the 1995 Agreement must be in conformity with the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       2.       Malta understands that the terms "geographical particularities", specific characteristics of the sub-region", "socio-economic geographical and environmental factors", "natural characteristics of that sea" or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       3.       Malta understands that no Provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, and of flag state exclusive jurisdiction over its vessels on the high seas as recognised by international law.
       4.       Malta understands that the term "States whose nationals fish on the high seas" shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       5.  The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21 (3). Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       6. Regarding the application of article 21, Malta understands that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions in article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any other authority under the provisions of article 21 over such vessel.
       Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement. No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel, which does not fly its flag.
       In addition, Malta considers that the word "unlawful" in article 21, para. 18 of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and in particular, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       7.   Malta reiterates that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       Furthermore, Malta considers that the relevant terms and conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and sub-regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
       8.   Malta understands that in the application of the provisions of article 21 paragraphs 6, 7 and 8, the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case. Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action.
       9.   Malta hereby declares that the provisions of article 21 and 22 apply only to maritime fishing.
       10. These provisions cannot be regarded as capable of being extended to cover vessels engaged in maritime transport under another international instrument, or of being transferred to any instrument not dealing directly with the conservation and management of fisheries resources covered by the Agreement.
       11. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21 (3). Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached[,] States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in article 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       12. Malta does not consider itself bound by any of the declarations which other States may have made, or will make, upon signing or ratifying the Agreement, reserving the right, as necessary, to determine its position with regard to each of them at the appropriate time, in particular, ratification of the Agreement does not imply automatic recognition of maritime or territorial claims by any signatory or ratifying State.
       13. Note is taken of the statement by the European Community made at the time of signature of the Agreement regarding the fact that its Member States have transferred competence to it with regard to certain aspects of the Agreement. In view of Malta's application to join the European Community, it is understood that this will also become applicable to Malta on membership.
       Furthermore, the Government of Malta would like to state that should Malta accede to the European Union, it reserves the right to submit a further Declaration in line with future declarations by the European Union."

Netherlands

Upon signature:

Declaration in respect of article 47:
       Upon signing the Agreement the Netherlands recalls that, as a Member State of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the Community with respect to certain matters governed by the Agreement. A detailed declaration on the nature and extent of the competence transferred to the European Community has been made by the European Community on the occasion of its signature of the Agreement, in accordance with article 47 of the Agreement.

Interpretative declarations made upon signature of the Agreement:
       [Same interpretative declarations, mutatis mutandis,  as those made under European Community.]

Upon ratification:

Declarations:
       "The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands recalls that as a member of the European Community it has transferred competence to the Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.
       ... the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands [confirms] the declarations1 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementing of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.  In this respect,  ... [the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands confirms] the declarations1 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementing of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Norway
       "Declaration pursuant to article 43 of the Agreement:
       According to article 42 of the Agreement, no reservations or exceptions may be made to the Agreement. A declaration pursuant to its article 43 cannot have the effect of an exception or reservation for the State making it. Consequently, the Government of the Kingdom of Norway declares that it does not consider itself bound by declarations pursuant to article 43 of the Agreement that are or will be made by other States or international Organisations. Passivity with respect to such declarations shall be interpreted neither as acceptance nor rejection of such declarations. The Government reserves Norway's right at any time to take a position on such declarations in the manner deemed appropriate.

Declaration pursuant to article 30 of the Agreement:
       The Government of the Kingdom of Norway declares pursuant to article 30 of the Agreement, cf. article 298 of the      United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, that it does not accept an arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for disputes concerning law enforcement activities in regard to the exercise of sovereign rights or jurisdiction excluded from the jurisdiction of a court or tribunal under article 297, paragraph 3, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, in the event that such disputes might be considered to be covered by this Agreement."

Poland

Declaration:
       The Government of the Republic of Poland recalls that, as a Member State of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.
       At the same time, the Republic of Poland confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.

Portugal

Declaration:
       "The Government of Portugal recalls that [as] a Member of the European Community it has transferred competence to the Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.  Portugal hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementing of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

Russian Federation

Declaration:
       The Russian Federation states that it considers that the procedures for the settlement of disputes set forth in article 30 of [the said Agreement] include all the provisions of part XV of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that are applicable to the consideration of disputes between States Parties to the Agreement.
       The Russian Federation states that, taking into account articles 42 and 43 of the Agreement, it objects to all declarations and statements which were made in the past and which may be made in the future when signing, ratifying or acceding to the Agreement or on any other occasion in connection with the Agreement and which are not in accordance with article 43 of the Agreement. It is the position of the Russian Federation that such declarations and statements, in whatever form they may be made and however they may be named, cannot exclude or modify the legal force of the provisions of the Agreement in their application to a Party to the Agreement that has made such a declaration or statement, and therefore will not be taken into consideration by the Russian Federation in its relations with that Party to the Agreement.

Slovakia

22 April 2009


Declaration in respect to article 47 (1) of the Agreement:
       "As a Member State of the European Community the Slovak Republic has transferred its competence for certain matters governed by the Agreement to the European Community. These matters are mentioned in the Declaration of 19 December 2003 made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement.
       The Slovak Republic confirms the interpretative declarations of 19 December 2003 made by the European community upon ratification of the Agreement."

Slovenia

Declarations:
       “Declaration
       The Republic of Slovenia declares upon the deposit of the Instrument of Accession of the Agreement on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks that she has, as a Member State of the European Community, transferred competence to the Community in respect of the following matters governed by the Agreement:
       I. Matters for which the Community has exclusive competence
       1. Member States have transferred competence to the Community with regard to the conservation and management of living marine resources. Hence, in this field, it is for the Community to adopt the relevant rules and regulations (which the Member States enforce) and within its competence to enter into external undertakings with third States or competent organisations.   This   competence applies in regard of waters under national fisheries jurisdiction and to the high seas.
       2. The Community enjoys the regulatory competence granted under international law to the flag State of a vessel to determine the conservation and management measures for marine fisheries resources applicable to vessels flying the flag of Member States and to ensure that Member States adopt provisions allowing for the implementation of the said measures.
       3. Nevertheless, measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels, for example refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorisations to serve as such, are within the competence of the Member States in accordance with their national legislation.
       Measures relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by the flag State over its vessels on the high seas, in particular provisions such as those related to the taking and relinquishing of control of fishing vessels by States other than the flag State, international cooperation in respect of enforment and the recovery of the control of their vessels, are within the competence of the Member States in compliance with Community law.
       II. Matters for which both the Community and its Member States have competence
       The Community shares competence with its Member States on the following matters governed by this Agreement: requirements of developing States, scientific research, port-State measures and measures adopted in respect of non-members of regional fisheries organisations and non-Parties to the Agreement. The following provisions of the Agreement apply both to the Community and to its Member States:
       - general provisions: (Articles 1, 4, and 34 to 50)
       - dispute settlement: (Part VIII).
       Interpretative Declaration
       1. The Republic of Slovenia understands that the terms 'geographical particularities', 'specific characteristics of the sub-region or region', 'socioeconomic geographical and environment factors', 'natural characteristics of that sea' or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       2. The Republic of Slovenia understands that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, recognised by international law.
       3. The Republic of Slovenia understands that the term 'States whose nationals fish on the high seas' shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       4. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in Article 21 (3). Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in Articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       5. Regarding the application of Article 21, the Republic of Slovenia understands that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions in Article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the authorities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any further authority under the provisions of Article 21 over such a vessel. Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in Part VIII of the Agreement. No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag. In addition, the Republic of Slovenia considers that the word 'unlawful' in Article 21 (18) of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, and in particular, Articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       6. The Republic of Slovenia reiterates that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the United Nations Charter and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. In addition, the Republic of Slovenia underlines that the use of force as referred to in Article 22 constitutes an exceptional measure which must be based on the strictest compliance with the principle of proportionality and that any abuse thereof shall imply the international liability of the inspecting State. Any case of non-compliance shall be resolved by peaceful means and in accordance with the applicable dispute-settlement procedures. Furthermore, the Republic of Slovenia considers that the relevant terms and conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and subregional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
       7. The Republic of Slovenia understands that in the application of the provisions of Article 21 (6), (7) and (8), the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case. Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action."
       Confirmation of the declarations made by the European Community
       The Republic of Slovenia hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the implementing of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks.”

Spain

Declarations:
       Declaration:
       Spain, as a member of the European Community, points out that it has transferred competence to the Community with regard to a number of matters regulated by the Fish Stocks Convention. Spain hereby reaffirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratifying the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]
       Interpretative declarations:
       1. Spain understand that the terms "geographical particularities", "specific characteristics of the subregion or region", "socio-economic, geographical and environmental factors", "natural characteristics of that sea" or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.
       2. Spain understands that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, recognized by international law.
       3. Spain understand that the term "States whose nationals fish on the high seas" shall not provide any new grounds for jurisdiction based on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.
       4. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in article 21, paragraph 3. Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, States shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.
       5. Regarding the application ofarticle 21, Spain understands that, when a flag State declares that it intends to exercise its authority, in accordance with the provisions of article 19, over a fishing vessel flying its flag, the auities of the inspecting State shall not purport to exercise any further authority under the provisions of article 21 over such a vessel.
       Any dispute related to this issue shall be settled in accordance with the procedures provided for in part VIII of the Agreement. No State may invoke this type of dispute to remain in control of a vessel which does not fly its flag.
       In addition, Spain considers that the word "unlawful" in article 21, paragraph 18 of the Agreement should be interpreted in the light of the whole Agreement, particularly, articles 4 and 35 thereof.
       6. Spain reiterates that all States shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force in accordance with general principles of international law, the United Nations Charter and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
       In addition, Spain underlines that the use of force as referred to in article 22 constitutes an exceptional measure which must be based upon the strictest compliance with the principle of proportionality and that any abuse thereof shall imply the international liability of the inspecting State. Any case of non-compliance shall be resolved by peaceful means and in accordance with the applicable dispute-settlement procedures.
       Furthermore, Spain considers that the relevant terms and conditions for boarding and inspection should be further elaborated in accordance with the relevant principles of international law in the framework of the appropriate regional and subregional fisheries management organizations and arrangements.
       7. Spain understand that in the application of the provisions of article 21, paragraphs 6, 7 and 8, the flag State may rely on the requirements of its legal system under which the prosecuting authorities enjoy a discretion to decide whether or not to prosecute in the light of all the facts of a case. Decisions of the flag State based on such requirements shall not be interpreted as failure to respond or to take action.
       8. Spain is of the view that the constituent conventions of regional fisheries management organizations such as the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, given their status as special international agreements, have legal precedence over the New York Agreement, which sets forth general rules on the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. Part VI of the Agreement, "Compliance and enforcement", laying down boarding and inspection procedures, is therefore to be regarded as a regulation subordinate to alternative mechanisms established by subregional or regional fisheries management organizations which effectively discharge the obligations under the New York Agreement of their members or participants to ensure compliance with the conservation and management measures established by such organizations or arrangements.
       9. Spain understands that in article 8, paragraph 3, of the Agreement the term "a real interest" used with reference to States which may be members of a regional fisheries management organization shall be regarded as meaning that a regional fisheries management organization must in all circumstances be open to any State whose fleet fishes or has fished in the area covered by the constituent convention of such organization, in respect of which fleet the flag State has the authority to ensure compliance and enforcement. Participation in such organizations by the States in question shall indicate their real interest in the fisheries.

Sweden

Declaration:
       "The Kingdom of Sweden recalls that, as a Member of the European Community, it has transferred competence to the Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement.  The Kingdom of Sweden hereby confirms the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks."
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Declaration:
       "[The Government of the United Kingdom has the honour to declare], in accordance with article 47 (1) of the Agreement (applying mutatis mutandis article 5 (2) and (6) of Annex IX of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982), that as a Member of the European Community, the United Kingdom has transferred competence to the European Community in respect of certain matters governed by the Agreement, which are specified in the Annex to this declaration.
       [See declarations under “European Community”.]
       
[The Government of the United Kingdom hereby confirms] the declarations made by the European Community upon ratification of the Agreement, and confirm that the interpretative declarations made by the European Community shall apply also to the United Kingdom's ratification of the said Agreement in respect of certain Overseas Territories, namely Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, Falkland Islands, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Bermuda, Turks and Caicos Islands, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands and Anguilla."
[See declarations under “European Community”.]

United States of America

Declaration:
       "In accordance with article 30 (4) of the Agreement, the Government of the United States of America declares that it chooses a special arbitral tribunal to be constituted in accordance with Annex VIII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 for the settlement of disputes pursuant to Part VIII of the Agreement."

Uruguay

Declarations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
       1. The objective of the Agreement, as set out in article 2, is to establish an appropriate legal framework and a comprehensive and effective set of measures for the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
       2. The effectiveness of the regime established will depend,  inter alia , on whether the conservation and management measures that are applied in areas beyond national jurisdiction take duly into account and are compatible with, those adopted by the relevant coastal States with respect to the same stocks in areas under their national jurisdiction, as provided for in article 7.
       3. Among the biological characteristics of a fish stock as a factor of which special account must be taken in determining compatible conservation and management measures, in accordance with article 7, paragraph 2(d), Uruguay attaches particular importance to the reproduction period of the fish stock in question, in order to ensure a sound and balanced approach to protection.
       4. Moreover, in order for the above-mentioned regime to be fully effective, in accordance with the objective and purpose of the Agreement, it is necessary to adopt emergency conservation and management measures, as stated in article 6, paragraph 7, where a serious threat exists to the survival of one or more straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks as a result of a natural phenomenon or human activity.
       5. Uruguay is of the view that, if an inspection carried out by a port State on a fishing vessel which is voluntarily present in one of its ports reveals that there are evident grounds for believing that the said fishing vessel has been involved in an activity that is contrary to the sub-regional or regional conservation and management measures on the high seas, then, in exercise of its right and duty to cooperate in conformity with article 23 of the Agreement, the port State should so inform the flag State and request that it take over responsibility for the vessel for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the said measures.

End Note
1.It will be recalled that, the Government of Italy had deposited an instrument of ratification on 4 March 1999 which it withdrew on 4 June 1999, indicating the following : “Italy indends to withdraw the instrument of ratification it deposited on 4 March 1999, in order to proceed subsequently to complete that formalilty in conjuction with all the States members of the European Union.”.
2.It will be recalled that the Government of Luxembourgh had deposited an instrument of ratification on 5 October 2000, which it withdrew on 21 December 2000, indicating the following:

The Permanent Mission of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg had indeed received instructions to deposit the instrument of ratification of the above-mentioned Agreement with the Secretary-General of the United Nations; this was done on 5 October 2000.  It turned out, however, that deposit on that date was premature since, in accordance with decision 98/414/CE of the Council of the European Union, of 8 June 1998, the instrument was to be deposited simultaneously with the instruments of ratification of all States members of the European Union.

Accordingly, [the Government of Luxembourg would] be grateful if [the Secretary-General] would note that Luxembourg wishes to withdraw the instrument of ratification deposited on 5 October 2000.  A simultaneous deposit of the instruments of the Community and of all member States is to take place subsequently.

3.For the Kingdom in Europe.
4.With a territorial application in respect of Tokelau.
5.On 19 December 2003, an instrument of ratification was lodged by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (“on behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”).

It will be recalled that on 4 December 1995, the Agreement was signed by the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland “... on behalf of Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Falkland Islands, Pitcairn Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, St. Helena including Ascension Island, and Turks and Caicos Islands”. Further, in a communication received on 19 January 1996, the Government of the United Kingdom informed the Secretary-General that the signature of 4 December 1995 “... would also apply to Anguilla”.

Subsequently, on 27 June 1996, the Agreement was signed by the United Kingdom for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

On 3 December 1999, an instrument of ratification was lodged  by the United Kingdom “... in respect of Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, Falkland Islands, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Bermuda, Turks and Caicos Islands, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands [and] Anguilla” with the following declarations:

“1. The United Kingdom understands that the terms ‘geographical particularities’, ‘specific characteristics of the sub-region or region’, ‘socio-economic geographical and environmental factors’, ‘natural characteristics of that sea’ or any other similar terms employed in reference to a geographical region do not prejudice the rights and duties of States under international law.

2. The United Kingdom understands that no provision of this Agreement may be interpreted in such a way as to conflict with the principle of freedom of the high seas, recognized by international law. 3. The United Kingdom understands that the term ‘States whose nationals fish on the high seas’ shall not prased on the nationality of persons involved in fishing on the high seas rather than on the principle of flag State jurisdiction.

4. The Agreement does not grant any State the right to maintain or apply unilateral measures during the transitional period as referred to in Article 21(3). Thereafter, if no agreement has been reached, states shall act only in accordance with the provisions provided for in Articles 21 and 22 of the Agreement.”

Upon a request for clarification as to why the above ratification excluded the metropolitan territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and subsequent consultations, the following additional declaration was provided by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 10 December 2001:

"1. The United Kingdom is a keen supporter of the Straddling Fish Stocks Agreement. Legislation of the European Communities (Council decision 10176/97 of 8 June 1998) binds the United Kingdom as a matter of EC law to deposit its instrument of ratification in relation to the metropolitan territory simultaneously with the European Community and the other Member States.

It is hoped that this event will take place later this year. The constraints imposed by that Council decision only apply in respect of the United Kingdom metropolitan territory and those overseas territories to which the EC treaties apply.

2. In the light of its temporary inability to ratify the Agreement in relation to the metropolitan territory, and the strong desire of the United Kingdom to implement the Agreement in respect of those overseas territories to which the EC treaty does not apply, because of the advantages it will bring to them, the United Kingdom lodged its instrument of ratification to the Agreement, with declarations, in respect of those overseas territories on 3 December 1999.

3. The United Kingdom is concerned that upon entry into force of the Agreement, the overseas territories covered by this ratification should enjoy the rhts and obligations accruing under the Agreement. I would therefore be grateful if you would arrange for the above formal declaration to be circulated in order in order to make it clear to all concerned the nature of the United Kingdom’s approach to ratification of this convention. ..."

Accordingly, the above action was accepted in deposit on 10 December 2001, the date on which the second declaration was lodged with the Secretary-General.

It will be recalled that the Secretary-General had received from the following States the following:

Argentina (4 December 1995):

The Argentine Republic rejects the inclusion of and reference to the Malvinas, South Georgian and South Sandwich Islands by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as dependent territories in its signing of the [said] Agreement, and reaffirms its sovereignty over those islands, which form an integral part of its national territory, and over their surrounding maritime spaces.

The Argentine Republic recalls that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25, in which it recognizes the existence of a sovereignty dispute and requests the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to initiate negotiations with a view to finding the means to resolve peacefully and definitively the problems pending between both countries, including all aspects on the future of the Malvinas Islands, in accordance with the Charter of the                     United Nations.

United Kingdom (19 January 1996):

"The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have noted the declaration of the Government of Argentina. The British Government have no doubt about the sovereignty of the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, as well as South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and have no doubt, therefore, about their right to end the said Agreement to these territories. The British Government can only reject as unfounded the claim by the Government of Argentina that they are a part of Argentine territory."

Mauritius (upon accession):

Declaration:

"The Republic of Mauritius rejects the inclusion of any reference to the so-called British Indian Ocean Territory by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as territories on whose behalf it could sign the said Agreement, and reaffirms its sovereignty over these islands, namely the Chagos Archipelago which form an integral part of the national territory of Mauritius and over their surrounding maritime spaces."

United Kingdom  (30 July 1997):

"...[the Government of the United Kingdom declares that it] has no doubt as to the United Kingdom sovereignty over the British Indian Ocean Territory."

Mauritius (8 February 2000):

“... The Republic of Mauritius rejects as unfounded the claim by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland of its sovereignty over the so-called British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago) and reaffirms its sovereignty and sovereign rights over the Chagos Archipelago which forms an integral part of the national territory of the Republic of Mauritius and over their surrounding maritime zones."

Further, on 8 February 2002, the Secretary-General received from the Government of Argentina, the following communication:

In that regard, the Argentine Republic rejects the claim of extension of the application of the Agreement to the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands communicated by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and lodged on 10 December 2001.

With regard to the question of the Malvinas, United Nations General Assembly resolutions 2065 (XX), 3160 (XXVIII), 31/49, 37/9, 38/12, 39/6, 40/21, 41/40, 42/19 and 43/25 recognize the existence of a dispute over sovereignty and request the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom toume negotiations in order to find a peaceful and lasting solution to the dispute, with assistance from the good offices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who is required to inform the General Assembly of the progress made.

The Argentine Republic reaffirms its rights of sovereignty over the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime areas, which are an integral part of its national territory.

The Argentine Republic reserves the right to express, at the appropriate time, its opinion concerning other aspects of the communication by the United Kingdom.

In this regard, the Secretary-General received from the Government of the United Kingdom on 17 June 2002,the following communication:

".....the United Kingdom rejects the Argentine objection to the ratification of the Agreement by the United Kingdom on behalf of the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the assertion by Argentina of rights of sovereignty over those territories and their surrounding maritime areas.

The United Kingdom has no doubt about its sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the surrounding maritime areas."