FOOD AID CONVENTION, 1999
FOOD AID CONVENTION, 1999
The Parties to this Convention,
Having reviewed the
Food Aid Convention, 1995 and its objective of securing at least 10 million
tonnes of food aid annually in the form of grain suitable for human consumption,
and wishing to confirm their desire to maintain international co-operation
on food aid matters among member governments;
Recalling the Declaration
on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action adopted
in Rome in 1996, in particular the commitment to achieve food security
for all and to an ongoing effort to eradicate hunger;
Desiring to enhance
the capacity of the international community to respond to food emergency
situations and to improve world food security, through the assurance of
supplies of food aid irrespective of world food price and supply fluctuations;
Recalling that, in
their 1994 Marrakesh decision on measures concerning least-developed countries
and net food-importing developing countries, Ministers of WTO member countries
agreed to review the level of food aid established under the Food Aid Convention
as further elaborated at the 1996 Singapore Ministerial Conference;
Recognising that the
recipients and members have their own policies on food aid and related
matters, and that the ultimate objective of food aid is the elimination
of the need for food aid itself;
Desiring to improve
the effectiveness and quality of food aid as a tool in support of food
security in developing countries, particularly to alleviate poverty and
hunger of the most vulnerable groups, and to improve member co-ordination
and co-operation in the field of food aid;
HAVE AGREED on the following:
PART I -- OBJECTIVES AND DEFINITIONS
The objectives of this Convention
are to contribute to world food security and to improve the ability of
the international community to respond to emergency food situations and
other food needs of developing countries by:
appropriate levels of food aid available on a predictable basis, as determined
by the provisions of this Convention;
members to ensure that the food aid provided is aimed particularly at the
alleviation of poverty and hunger of the most vulnerable groups, and is
consistent with agricultural development in those countries;
principles for maximising the impact, the effectiveness and quality of
the food aid provided as a tool in support of food security; and,
a framework for co-operation, co-ordination and information-sharing among
members on food aid related matters to achieve greater efficiency in all
aspects of food aid operations and better coherence between food aid and
other policy instruments.
(a) Under this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to:
(i) "c.i.f." means cost, insurance and freight;
(ii) "Commitment" means the minimum amount of food aid to be provided annually
by a member under
Article III (e);
(iii) "Committee" means the Food Aid Committee referred to in Article XV;
(iv) "Contribution" means the amount of food aid provided and reported to the Committee by a member annually in accordance with the provisions of this Convention;
(v) "Convention" means the Food Aid Convention, 1999;
(vi) "DAC" means the Development Assistance Committee of OECD;
(vii) "Developing country" means any country or territory eligible to receive food aid under Article VII;
(viii) "Eligible product" means a product, referred to in Article IV, which may be provided as food aid by a member as its contribution under this Convention;
(ix) "Executive Director" means the Executive Director of the International Grains Council;
(x) "f.o.b." means free on board;
(xi) "Food" or "food aid" includes, as appropriate, a reference to seed for food crops;
(xii) "Member" means a party to this Convention;
(xiii) "Micronutrients" means vitamins and minerals used to fortify or complement food aid products which are eligible, under Article IV (c), to be counted as a member's contribution;
(xiv) "OECD" means the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development;
(xv) "Products of primary processing" include:
• cereal flours;
• cereal groats and cereal meal;
• other worked cereal grains (e.g. rolled, flaked, polished, pearled and kibbled, but not further prepared) except husked, glazed, polished or broken rice;
• germ of cereals, whole, rolled, flaked or ground;
• bulgur; and
• any other similar grain product which the Committee may decide;
(xvi) "Products of secondary processing" include:
• macaroni, spaghetti and similar products; and
• any other product, whose manufacture involves the use of a product of primary processing, which the Committee may decide;
(xvii) "Rice" includes husked, glazed, polished or broken rice;
(xviii) "Secretariat" means the Secretariat of the International Grains Council;
(xix) "Tonne" means a metric ton of 1,000 kilograms;
(xx) "Transport and other operational costs", as listed in Annex A, mean costs beyond the f.o.b. stage or, in the case of local purchases, beyond the point of purchase, associated with a food aid operation, which may be counted in whole or in part towards a member's contribution;
(xxi) "Value" means the commitment of a member in a convertible currency;
(xxii) "Wheat equivalent" means the amount of a member's commitment or contribution as evaluated in accordance with Article V;
(xxiii) "WTO" means the World Trade Organization;
(xxiv) "Year" means the period from 1 July to the following 30 June, unless otherwise stated.
(b) Any reference in this Convention to a "Government" or "Governments" or "member" shall be construed as including a reference to the European Community (hereinafter referred to as the EC). Accordingly, any reference in this Convention to "signature" or to the "deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, or approval" or "an instrument of accession" or "a declaration of provisional application" by a Government shall, in the case of the EC, be construed as including signature or declaration of provisional application on behalf of the EC by its competent authority and the deposit of the instrument required by the institutional procedures of the EC to be deposited for the conclusion of an international agreement.
(c) Any reference
in this Convention to a "Government", or "Governments", or "member", shall
be understood, where appropriate, to include a reference to any separate
customs territory within the meaning of the General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade or of the Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization.
PART II -- CONTRIBUTIONS AND NEEDS
Quantities and Quality
(a) Members agree to provide food aid to developing countries or the cash equivalent thereof in the minimum annual amounts specified in paragraph (e) below (hereinafter referred to as "the commitment").
(b) The commitment of each member shall be expressed in either tonnes of wheat equivalent or in value or in a combination of tonnage and value. Members expressing their commitment in value terms shall also specify a guaranteed annual tonnage.
(c) In the
case of members expressing their commitment in value terms or in a combination
of tonnage and value, the value may include the transport and other operational
costs associated with the food aid operations.
its commitment is expressed in tonnage, in value, or in a combination of
tonnage and value, a member may also include an indicative value representing
its total estimated cost, including the transport and other operational
costs associated with the food aid operations.
to the provisions of Article VI, the commitment of each member shall be:
|European Community and its
|1,320,000||C= 130(2)||C= 422(2)|
|United States of America||2,500,000||-||US$ 900-1,000(2)|
(1) Members shall report their food aid operations in line with the relevant Rules of Procedure.
(2) Includes transport and other operational costs.
and other operational costs, when counted towards a member's commitment,
must be incurred as part of a food aid operation which is also eligible
to be counted towards a member's commitment.
(g) In respect
of transport and other operational costs, a member cannot count more than
the acquisition cost of eligible products towards its commitment, except
in the case of internationally recognised emergency situations.
(h) Any member which has acceded to this Convention under paragraph (b) of Article XXIII shall be deemed to be listed in paragraph (e) of this Article, together with its commitment.
(i) The commitment of an acceding member referred to in paragraph (h) of this Article shall not be less than 20,000 tonnes or an appropriate value as the Committee may approve. This will normally apply in full starting in the first year during which the country is deemed by the Committee to have acceded to the Convention. However, to facilitate the accession of Governments other than those referred to in paragraph (e) of this Article, the Committee may agree that an acceding member's commitment should be phased in over a period of not more than three years, provided that the commitment is at least 10,000 tonnes or an appropriate value in the first year, and increases by at least 5,000 tonnes a year or an appropriate value in each succeeding year.
(j) All products
provided as food aid shall meet international quality standards, be consistent
with the dietary habits and nutritional needs of recipients and, with the
exception of seeds, shall be suitable for human consumption.
(a) The following products are eligible to be supplied under this Convention, subject to the specifications set out in the relevant Rules of Procedure:
(i) grains (wheat, barley, maize, millet, oats, rye, sorghum or triticale) or rice;
(ii) grain and rice products of primary or secondary processing;
(iv) edible oil;
(v) root crops (cassava, round potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), where these are supplied in triangular transactions or in local purchases;
(vi) skimmed milk powder;
(viii) seed for eligible products; and,
(ix) within the limits of paragraph (b) below, products which are a component of the traditional diet of vulnerable groups, or a component of supplementary feeding programmes, and which meet the requirements set out in Article III (j) of this Convention.
(b) The amount
of food aid provided by a member in any year in fulfilling its commitment
in the form of:
(i) all products included in paragraph (a) (vi) to (viii) of this Article shall not together exceed 15%, and no product category may individually exceed 7%, of its commitment excluding transport and other operational costs;
(ii) all products included in paragraph (a) (ix) of this Article shall not together exceed 5%, and no product may individually exceed 3%, of its commitment excluding transport and other operational costs;
(iii) in the case of commitments expressed as a combination of tonnage and value, the percentages in sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) above shall be calculated separately for tonnage and value, excluding transport and other operational costs.
(c) For the
purposes of fulfilment of their commitments, members may provide micro-nutrients
in conjunction with eligible products. They are encouraged to provide,
when appropriate, fortified food aid products, particularly in emergency
situations and targeted development projects.
shall be counted in terms of their wheat equivalent, as follows :
(i) grain for human consumption shall be equal to wheat;
(ii) rice shall be determined by the international export price relationship between rice and wheat, in accordance with the methods set out in the Rules of Procedure;
(iii) products of primary or secondary processing of grains or of rice shall be determined by their respective grain or rice content, in accordance with the specifications set out in the Rules of Procedure;
(iv) pulses, seed of grain, rice or other food crops, and all other eligible products, shall be based on the costs of acquisition in accordance with the methods set out in the Rules of Procedure.
(b) In the case of contributions in the form of blends or mixtures of products, only the proportion of the blend or mixture which is made from eligible products shall be counted towards a member's contribution.
(c) The Committee shall establish a Rule of Procedure to determine the wheat equivalent of fortified products and micro-nutrients.
of cash for the purchase of eligible products supplied as food aid shall
be evaluated either in accordance with the wheat equivalent of these products,
or at prevailing international market prices of wheat, in accordance with
the methods laid down in the Rules of Procedure.
Carryover and Carryforward
(a) Each member shall ensure that operations in respect of its commitment for one year are made to the maximum extent possible within that year.
(b) If a member is unable to provide the amount specified in paragraph (e) of Article III in a particular year, it shall report the circumstances to the Committee as soon as possible and, in any case, no later than the first session held after the end of that year. Unless the Committee decides otherwise, the unfulfilled amount shall be added to the member's commitment for the following year.
(c) If a
member's contribution exceeds its commitment for any year, up to 5% of
its overall commitment, or the amount of the excess, whichever is the smaller,
may be counted as part of the member's commitment for the following year.
(a) Food aid under this Convention may be provided to the developing countries and territories which are listed in Annex B, namely:
(i) least-developed countries;
(ii) low-income countries;
(iii) lower middle-income countries, and other countries included in the WTO list of Net Food-Importing Developing Countries at the time of negotiation of this Convention, when experiencing food emergencies or internationally recognised financial crises leading to food shortage emergencies, or when food aid operations are targeted on vulnerable groups.
(b) For purposes of paragraph (a) above, any changes made to the DAC list of Developing Countries and Territories in Annex B (a) to (c) shall also apply to the list of eligible recipients under this Convention.
allocating their food aid, members shall give priority to least-developed
countries and low-income countries.
(a) Food aid should only be provided when it is the most effective and appropriate means of assistance.
(b) Food aid should be based on an evaluation of needs by the recipient and the members, within their own respective policies, and should be aimed at enhancing food security in recipient countries. In responding to those needs, members shall pay attention to meeting the particular nutritional needs of women and children.
(c) Food aid for free distribution should be targeted on vulnerable groups.
(d) The provision of food aid in emergency situations should take particular account of longer-term rehabilitation and development objectives in the recipient countries and should respect basic humanitarian principles. Members shall aim to ensure that the food aid provided reaches the intended recipients in a timely manner.
(e) To the maximum extent possible, non-emergency food aid shall be provided by members on a forward planning basis, so that recipient countries may be able to take account, in their development programmes, of the likely flow of food aid they will receive during each year of this Convention.
(f) If it appears that, because of a substantial production shortfall or other circumstances, a particular country, region or regions is faced with exceptional food needs, the matter shall be considered by the Committee. The Committee may recommend that members should respond to the situation by increasing the amount of food aid provided.
(g) At the time of the identification of food aid needs, members or their partners shall endeavour to consult with each other at the regional and recipient country level, with a view to developing a common approach to needs analysis.
(h) Members agree, where appropriate, to identify priority countries and regions under their food aid programmes. Members will ensure transparency as to their priorities, policies and programmes, by providing information for other donors.
will consult with each other, directly or through their relevant partners,
on the possibilities for the establishment of common action plans for priority
countries, if possible on a multi-annual basis.
Forms and Terms of Aid
(a) Food aid under this Convention may be supplied as:
(i) grants of food or of cash to be used to purchase food for or by the recipient country;
(ii) sales of food for the currency of the recipient country, which is not transferable and is not convertible into currency or goods and services for use by the donor members;
(iii) sales of food on credit, with payment to be made in reasonable annual amounts over periods of 20 years or more and with interest at rates which are below commercial rates prevailing in world markets.
(b) With respect only to food aid counted against a member's commitment, all food aid provided to least-developed countries shall be made in the form of grants.
(c) Food aid under this Convention provided in the form of grants shall represent not less than 80 per cent of a member's contribution and, to the extent possible, members will seek progressively to exceed this percentage.
(d) Members shall undertake to conduct all food aid transactions under this Convention in such a way as to avoid harmful interference with normal patterns of production and international commercial trade.
(e) Members shall ensure that:
(i) the provision of food aid is not tied directly or indirectly, formally
or informally, explicitly or implicitly, to commercial exports of agricultural
products or other goods and services to recipient countries;
(ii) food aid transactions, including bilateral food aid which is monetised,
are carried out in a manner consistent with the FAO "Principles of Surplus
Disposal and Consultative Obligations".
Transport and Delivery
(a) The costs of transporting and delivering food aid beyond the f.o.b. stage shall, to the extent possible, be borne by the donors, particularly in the case of emergency food aid or food aid provided to priority recipient countries.
(b) In planning food aid operations, due account shall be taken of potential difficulties which may affect transport, processing or storage of food aid, and the effects that the delivery of the aid may have on marketing of local harvests in the recipient country.
(c) In order to make optimum use of available logistical capacity, members shall establish, as far as possible, with other food aid donors, recipient countries, and any other parties involved in the delivery of the food aid, a co-ordinated timetable for the delivery of their aid.
(d) Due reference to the payment of transport and other operational costs shall be made in any review of the performance of members under this Convention.
and other operational costs must be incurred as part of a food aid operation
which is also eligible to be reported as part of a member's contribution.
(a) Members may provide their food aid bilaterally, through intergovernmental or other international organisations, or non-governmental organisations.
(b) Members shall give full consideration to the advantages of directing food aid through multilateral channels, in particular the World Food Programme.
(c) In developing and implementing their food aid operations, members shall make use, whenever possible, of information and competencies available within the relevant international organisations, whether inter-governmental or non-governmental, active in the field of food aid.
are encouraged to co-ordinate their food aid policies and activities in
relation to international organisations active in the field of food aid,
with a view to strengthening the coherence of food aid operations.
Local Purchases and Triangular Transactions
(a) In order to promote local agricultural development, strengthen regional and local markets and enhance the longer-term food security of recipient countries, members shall give consideration to using or directing their cash contributions for the purchase of food:
(i) for supply to the recipient country from other developing countries
("triangular transactions"); or,
(ii) in one part of a developing country for supply to a deficit area in that country ("local purchases").
(b) Cash contributions shall not normally be made to purchase food which is of the same type that the country which is the source of supply has received as bilateral or multilateral food aid in the same year as the purchase, or in a previous year if the food aid then received is still being used.
(c) To facilitate the purchase of food from developing countries, members shall, to the extent possible, provide to the Secretariat such information as is available to them on food surpluses that may exist, or are anticipated, in developing countries.
shall pay particular attention to avoiding harmful effects on low-income
consumers due to price changes resulting from local purchases.
Effectiveness and Impact
(a) In all food aid transactions, members shall pay particular attention to:
(i) avoiding harmful effects on local harvests, production and marketing structures, by appropriately timing the distribution of food aid;
(ii) respecting local food habits and nutritional needs of the beneficiaries and minimising any possible negative effects on their eating habits; and
(iii) facilitating the participation of women in the decision-making process and in the implementation of food aid operations, thus strengthening food security at the household level.
(b) Members shall endeavour to support the efforts of governments in recipient countries to develop and implement food aid programmes in a manner consistent with this Convention.
(c) Members should support and, where appropriate, contribute to strengthening the capacity and competence of recipient governments and the respective civil societies to develop and implement food security strategies to enhance the impact of food aid programmes.
(d) When food aid is sold within a recipient country, the sale shall be carried out, as far as possible, through the private sector and be based on market analysis. In targeting proceeds from such sales, priority shall be given to projects aiming to improve the food security of beneficiaries.
(e) Consideration should be given to reinforcing food aid by other means (financial aid, technical assistance etc.) in order to strengthen its capacity to enhance food security and to increase the capacity of governments and civil society to develop food security strategies at all levels.
(f) Members shall endeavour to ensure coherence between food aid policies and policies in other sectors such as development, agriculture and trade.
(g) Members agree to consult to the extent possible with all partners concerned at the level of each recipient country to ensure monitoring of the co-ordination of food aid programmes and operations.
(h) Members shall endeavour to carry out joint evaluations of their food aid programmes and operations. Such evaluation should be based on agreed international principles.
(i) When carrying out evaluations of their food aid programmes and operations, members shall take into consideration the provisions of this Convention relating to the effectiveness and impact of those food aid programmes and operations.
are encouraged to assess the impact of their food aid programmes, channelled
bilaterally or multilaterally or through non-governmental organisations,
using appropriate indicators such as the nutritional status of the beneficiaries
and other indicators related to world food security.
Information and Co-ordination
(a) Members shall provide regular and timely reports to the Committee on the amount, content, channelling, costs including transport and other operational costs, forms and terms of their contributions in accordance with the Rules of Procedure.
(b) Members undertake to supply such statistical and other information that may be required for the operation of this Convention, in particular regarding their:
(i) aid deliveries, including the purchase of products made as the result of cash contributions, local purchases or triangular operations, and those channelled through international organisations;
(ii) arrangements entered into for the future supply of food aid;
(iii) policies affecting the provision and distribution of food aid. To
the extent possible, these reports shall be submitted in writing to the
Executive Director before each regular session of the Committee.
who make contributions in the form of multilateral cash contributions to
international organisations shall report the fulfilment of their obligations
in accordance with the Rules of Procedure.
(d) Members shall exchange information on their food aid policies and programmes and the results of their evaluations of these policies and programmes, and shall endeavour to ensure the coherence of their food aid programmes with food security strategies at national, regional, local and household levels.
shall indicate to the Committee, in advance, the amount of their commitment
which is not made in the form of grants and the terms of any such aid.
PART III - ADMINISTRATION
Food Aid Committee
(a) The Food Aid Committee, established by the Food Aid Convention of the International Grains Arrangement, 1967, shall continue in being for the purpose of administering this Convention, with the powers and functions provided in this Convention.
(b) The membership of the Committee shall consist of all parties to this Convention.
member shall designate a representative resident at the seat of the Committee
to whom the Secretariat's notices and other communications related to the
work of the Committee shall normally be addressed. Other arrangements may
be adopted by any member in agreement with the Executive Director.
Powers and Functions
(a) The Committee shall take such decisions and perform such functions as are required to carry out the provisions of this Convention. It shall establish such Rules of Procedure as are necessary for this purpose.
(b) The decisions of the Committee shall be reached by consensus.
(c) The Committee shall keep the requirements for food aid in developing countries and the ability of members to respond to those requirements under review.
(d) The Committee shall keep under review the progress made in attaining the objectives set out in Article I of this Convention, and the fulfilment of the provisions of this Convention.
(e) The Committee
may receive information from recipient countries and consult with them.
Chairman and Vice-Chairman
(a) At the last statutory session held in each year, the Committee shall appoint a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman for the following year.
(b) The duties of the Chairman shall be:
(i) to approve the draft agenda for each session;
(ii) to preside at sessions;
(iii) to declare the opening and closing of each meeting and of each session;
(iv) to submit the draft agenda to the Committee for adoption at the beginning of each session;
(v) to direct the discussions and to ensure observance of the Rules of Procedure;
(vi) to accord the right to speak and to decide all questions of order in accordance with the relevant Rules of Procedure;
(vii) to put questions and announce decisions; and,
(viii) to rule on points of order that delegates may raise.
(c) If the Chairman is absent from a session or any part thereof, or is temporarily unable to fill the office of Chairman, the Vice-Chairman shall act as Chairman. In the absence of the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman, the Committee shall appoint a temporary Chairman.
(d) If, for any reason, the Chairman is unable to continue to fill the office of Chairman, the Vice-Chairman shall act as Chairman pending the appointment of a new Chairman by the Committee.
(e) The Vice-Chairman,
when acting as Chairman, or the temporary Chairman, shall have the same
powers and duties as the Chairman.
(a) The Committee shall meet at least twice a year in conjunction with the statutory sessions of the International Grains Council. The Committee shall meet also at such other times either as the Chairman shall decide, at the request of three members, or as otherwise required by this Convention.
(b) The presence of delegates representing two thirds of the membership of the Committee shall be necessary to constitute a quorum at any session of the Committee.
(c) The Committee may, when appropriate, invite any non-member government and representatives from other international inter-governmental organisations to attend its open meetings as observers.
(d) The seat
of the Committee shall be in London.
(a) The Committee
shall use the services of the Secretariat of the International Grains Council
for the performance of such administrative duties as the Committee may
request, including the processing and distribution of documentation and
(b) The Executive
Director shall carry out the directions of the Committee and shall perform
such duties as are laid down in the Convention and the Rules of Procedure.
Defaults and Disputes
(a) In the case of a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, or of a default in obligations under this Convention, the Committee shall meet and take appropriate action.
shall take account of the recommendations and conclusions reached by consensus
by the Committee in cases of disagreement as to the application of the
provisions of this Convention.
PART IV - FINAL PROVISIONS
of the United Nations is hereby designated as the depositary of this Convention.
Signature and Ratification
(a) This Convention shall be open for signature from 1 May 1999 until and including 30 June 1999 by the Governments referred to in paragraph (e) of Article III.
(b) This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by each signatory Government in accordance with its constitutional procedures. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the depositary not later than 30 June 1999, except that the Committee may grant one or more extensions of time to any signatory Government that has not deposited its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval by that date.
(c) Any signatory Government may deposit with the depositary a declaration of provisional application of this Convention. Any such Government shall provisionally apply this Convention in accordance with its laws and regulations and be provisionally regarded as a party thereto.
(d) The depositary
shall notify all signatory and acceding Governments of each signature,
ratification, acceptance, approval, provisional application of, and accession
to, this Convention.
(a) This Convention shall be open for accession by any Government referred to in paragraph (e) of Article III that has not signed this Convention. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary not later than 30 June 1999, except that the Committee may grant one or more extensions of time to any Government that has not deposited its instrument of accession by that date.
(b) Once this Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article XXIV, it shall be open for accession by any Government other than those referred to in paragraph (e) of Article III, upon such conditions as the Committee considers appropriate. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.
(c) Any Government
acceding to this Convention under paragraph (a) of this Article, or whose
accession has been agreed by the Committee under paragraph (b) of this
Article, may deposit with the depositary a declaration of provisional application
of this Convention pending the deposit of its instrument of accession.
Any such Government shall provisionally apply this Convention in accordance
with its laws and regulations and be provisionally regarded as a party
Entry into Force
(a) This Convention shall enter into force on I July 1999 if by 30 June 1999 the Governments, whose combined commitments, as listed in paragraph (e) of Article III, equal at least 75% of the total commitments of all governments listed in that paragraph, have deposited instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or declarations of provisional application, and provided that the Grains Trade Convention, 1995 is in force.
(b) If this
Convention does not enter into force in accordance with paragraph (a) of
this Article, the Governments which have deposited instruments of ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession, or declarations of provisional application,
may decide by unanimous consent that it shall enter into force among themselves
provided that the Grains Trade Convention, 1995 is in force.
Duration and Withdrawal
(a) This Convention shall remain in force until and including 30 June 2002, unless extended under paragraph (b) of this Article or terminated earlier under paragraph (f) of this Article, provided that the Grains Trade Convention,1995, or a new Grains Trade Convention replacing it, remains in force until and including that date.
(b) The Committee may extend this Convention beyond 30 June 2002 for successive periods not exceeding two years on each occasion, provided that the Grains Trade Convention,1995, or a new Grains Trade Convention replacing it, remains in force during the period of the extension.
(c) If this Convention is extended under paragraph (b) of this Article, the commitments of members under paragraph (e) of Article III may be subject to review by members before the entry into force of each extension. Their respective commitments, as reviewed, shall remain unchanged for the duration of each extension.
(d) The operation of this Convention shall be kept under review, in particular with reference to the results of any multilateral negotiations bearing on the provision of food aid, including especially on concessional credit terms, and the need to apply the results thereof.
(e) The situation with respect to all food aid operations and, in particular, those under concessional credit terms, shall be reviewed before deciding on any extension of this Convention or any new convention.
(f) In the event of this Convention being terminated, the Committee shall continue in being for such time as may be required to carry out its liquidation, and shall have such powers, and exercise such functions, as may be necessary for that purpose.
(g) Any member may withdraw from this Convention at the end of any year by giving written notice of withdrawal to the depositary at least ninety days prior to the end of that year. That member shall not thereby be released from any obligations incurred under this Convention which have not been discharged by the end of that year. The member shall simultaneously inform the Committee of the action it has taken.
(h) Any member
which withdraws from this Convention may thereafter rejoin by giving written
notice to the Committee and to the depositary. It shall be a condition
of rejoining the Convention that the member shall be responsible for fulfilling
its commitment with effect from the year in which it rejoins.
International Grains Agreement
shall replace the Food Aid Convention, 1995, as extended, and shall be
one of the constituent instruments of the International Grains Agreement,
of this Convention in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages
shall all be equally authentic.
DONE at London,
13 April Nineteen Ninety-Nine.
TRANSPORT AND OTHER OPERATIONAL COSTS
transport and other operational costs associated with food aid contributions
are included under Articles II (a) (vii), III, X and XIV of this Convention:
(a) Transport Costs
freight, including loading and discharge
demurrage and dispatch
insurance and superintendence
port charges and storage fees in port
temporary warehouse facilities and fees in port and on-route
in-country transport, vehicle hire, tolls and escort, convoy and border fees
(b) Other Operational Costs
non-food items (NFIs) utilised by beneficiaries (tools, utensils, agricultural inputs)
NFIs provided to implementing partners (vehicles, storage facilities)
costs of counterpart training
implementing partners' operational costs, not otherwise covered as transport costs
milling and other special costs
in-country NGO costs
technical support services and logistics management
project preparation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation
in-country technical services
aid recipients under Article VII of this Convention refer to Developing
Countries and Territories listed as aid recipients by the Development Assistance
Committee (DAC) of the OECD, effective as of 1 January 1997, and to countries
included in the WTO list of Net Food-Importing Developing Countries, effective
as of 1 March 1999.
(a) Least-Developed Countries
Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape
Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo Dem. Rep., Djibouti,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti,
Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra
Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda,
Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zambia.
b) Low-Income Countries
Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, China,
Congo Rep, Côte d'Ivoire, Georgia, Ghana, Guyana, Honduras, India,
Kenya, Kyrgyz Rep, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sri
Lanka, Tajikistan, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe.
(c) Lower Middle-Income Countries
Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Grenada, Guatemala, Indonesia,
Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Korea (Democratic Republic of),
Lebanon, Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic), Marshall Islands, Micronesia
Federated States, Moldova, Morocco, Namibia, Niue, Palau Islands, Palestinian
Administered Areas, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines,
St Vincent & Grenadines, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Timor,
Tokelau, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Wallis
and Futuna, and Yugoslavia Federal Republic.
(d) WTO Net Food-Importing Developing Countries (not included above)
Barbados, Mauritius, St Lucia, Trinidad & Tobago.